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Colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Reserves, Brevet Brigadier General, 

Commanding 2nd Brigade. 





Dedication OF THE Monuments 




How sleep the brave, who sink to rest. 
By all their Country's wishes blessed! 
When Spring-, with dewy Angers cold. 
Returns to deck their hallowed mould. 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod. 
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod. 



By ti-HutsIei 

JUN 29 )9iD 




Coat of Arms of Pennsylvania Placed on each Monument. 



JOHN A. WILEY, Treasurer. 





THROUGH the generosity of the Legislature of our State, 
and the desire to honor the men of the Second Brigade 
of the Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, who 
w.-re not thus honored at Gettysburg, an act was passed ap- 
propriating the sum of ten thousand dollars for the purchase 
of oround and the erection of memorials to the four com- 
mands which constituted the Second Brigade, namely: the 
Third Fourth, Seventh and Eighth Regiments. 

The' ground selected being the property of the United 
States Government, the Commission was given authority by 
the Government to locate the monuments on said property, 
thereby saving the expense of purchasing ground, and thus 
devoting the entire appropriation of ten thousand dollars to 

the memorials. 

An additional appropriation of five thousand dollars was 
made for the transportation and care of the veterans to and 
from the battlefield, and one thousand, two hundred dollars 
for the expense of the Commission. 

By a subsequent Act of the Legislature, approved the 7th 
day of May, 1907, the Commission was authorized to use an 
unexpended balance of four hundred and thirty-six dollars, 
of one thousand, two hundred dollars appropriated for the 
expenses of the Commission, for the purpose of securing ad- 
ditional land in the rear of the monuments in order to show 
them off to better advantage and afford space for a drive- 
way. The above amount, together with contributions made 
by the members of the several Regiments and their friends, 
enabled the Commission to purchase fifteen feet of land and 
have the same conveyed, by deed, to the United States 
Government, who will now have entire supervision over 
the ground and monuments, thereby keeping the same in good 
order at all times. It is a park of which any member of our 
Brigade should feel proud. 

Credit is due to our comrade, John N. Reber, of Company 
G, of the Fourth Regiment, for preparing the bill and having 
it' introduced in the Legislature, and working incessantly to 


6 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

have the bill become a law. We are also indebted to our 
comrade, Hon. John A. Kiebel, member of the Legislature 
from the lUth District, who so ably championed our cause 
and never faltered in the work until it became a law. There- 
fore, in behalf of our comrades, I extend to comrade Riebel 
our warmest thanks. 

The monuments are of granite — strong, durable memorials 
to the martjrs who sacrificed their life's blood on this field. 
A description of each will be found in the proceedings of the 
dedication of the several Regiments. Prominent on the monu- 
ments is the Coat of Arms of our grand old Commonwealth, 
who has always been found in the very front in honoring 
and caring for her Sons of the Civil war. 

The name of the artist who designed the monuments oc- 
cupies a place on each of the pedestals, and it is fitting at 
this time to give credit to the contractor, Mr. W. B. Van 
Amringe, President of the Van Amringe Granite Company, 
of Boston, Mass., for the very elegant memorials he has 
erected, and the assistance he has rendered at all times to 
make the dedication a success. 


Editor and Compiler. 


Second Brigade Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps. 
Third Regiment (32d of the Line.) 
Fourth Regiment (33d of the Line.) 
Seventh Regiment (36th of the Line.) 
Eighth Regiment (37th of the Line.) 



Seventh Regiment, President of the Commission. 


Philadelphia, May 29th, 1908. 

To the Hon. Edwin S. Stuart, Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania: 

Sir: The Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania 
b(^gs leave to submit the following report of duties imposed 
upon it under the authority of an act of the General Assem- 
bly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as follows: 

Providing for the erection of memorial tablets or monuments to mark the 
position, on the field of Antietam, of certain Pennsylvania regiments 
that participated in the battle on September sixteenth and seventeenth, 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, but were not in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and for the dedication of the same, and making an 
appropriation therefor. 

Whereas, The following regiments, to wit. The Third, Fourth, Seventh, 
and Eighth regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, par- 
ticipated in the battle of Antietam, on September sixteenth and seven- 
teenth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, but were not at 
Gettysburg, and have no monuments to commemorate their services on 
any battlefield, and it is but right and proper that the Commonwealth 
should recognize their valor by providing monuments marking their posi- 
tion on the field of Antietam: 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c.. That the sum of ten thousand dollars, 
or a^ much thereof as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby 
especially appropriated, out of any moneys in the State Treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, for the purchase of ground and the erecting of 
suitable monuments or memorial tablets of granite, bronze, or other 
durable material, to mark the position on the field of Antietam of each 
of the above named regiments, to wit. The Third, Fourth, Seventh, and 
Eighth regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, that par- 
ticipated in that battle, and were not at Gettysburg; and 

That the further sum of five thousand dollars, or as much thereof 
as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby specifically appropriated, 
out of any moneys in the State Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for 
the payment of the expense of the dedication of the same, and the 
transportation and care of the survivors of said regiments on the occasion 
of the dedication of the said monuments on the battlefield of Antietam; 

That the further sum of twelve hundred dollars, or as much thereof 
as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby specifically appropriated, 
out of any moneys in the State Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for 


10 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

the payment of the expenses of the commissioners, find the representatives 
of the different regiments acting in conjunction witli them, as provided 
for in section two of tliis act. 

Section 2. Tliat the Governor shall appoint three Commissioners, whose 
duty it shall be to act in conjunction with a committee, not to exceed 
three survivors from each of said regiments, for the purchase of ground, 
when found ncjcessary to do so, and in the selection of a site, design, 
material and inscription for a monument or tablet to mark the position 
of each regiment on the said battleiield; and it shall be the further duty 
of said Commissionei's to contract for the erection of each monument 
or tablet, and give such supervision as shall be necessary in the erection 
of the same, and, Avhen erected and dedicated, to transfer to the Antietam 
Battlefield Commission of the War Department of the United States said 
monuments or tablets, for care and keeping. 

The Auditor General, shall, upon satisfactory vouchers or statements 
presented to him by the said Commissioners, draw his warrants upon 
the State Treasurer for amounts, not exceeding in the aggregate two 
thousand five hundred dollars, for the monument or tablet for each regi- 

The said Commissioners shall serve without compensation, but shall 
have their necessary expenses paid, as well as the expenses of the 
representatives of the said regiments acting in conjunction with them; 
and the Auditor General shall, upon satisfactory vouchers or statements 
presented to him by the said Commissioners, draw his warrants upon 
the State Treasurer for amounts, not exceeding in the aggregate twelve 
hundred dollars, for the exjjenses of the said Commissioners and regi- 
mental representatives. 

The said commissioners shall, in conjunction with the said regimental 
representatives, upon the completion of the said monuments or tablets, 
make arrangements for the suitable dedication of the same, and for the 
transportation and care of the survivors of the said regiments on the 
occasion of the said dedication. 

The Auditor General shall, upon satisfactory vouchers or statements 
presented to him by the said Commissioners, draw his warrants upon the 
State Treasurer for amounts, not exceeding in the aggregate five thou- 
sand dollars, for the expenses of the dedication of the said monuments 
or tablets, and the transportation and care of the survivors of the 
said regiments upon the occasion of the said dedication. 

The said commissioners shall make report of their work to the Governor, 
and file with the Auditor General a verified statement of expenses in- 
curred by themselves and the representatives of the said regiments acting 
in conjunction with them, as afoi-esaid. 

Approved— The 11th day of May, A. D. 190.^. 


The foregoing is a true and correct copy of the act of the General 
Assembly No. 354. 

Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

'!/» -^ -rW-^ 

Fourth Regiment, Secretary of the Commission. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 11 

Under the provisions of this Act the following gentlemen 
were commissiont d by the Governor on the 10th day of June, 
A. D. 19Uo, as the Antietam Battlefield Memorial Commis- 
sion, to wit: 

Robert M. Henderson, Brevet Brigadier-General, 7th Regi- 

Alexander F. Nicholas, 4th Regiment. 
John A. Wiley, 8th Regiment. 

The Commission organized on the 5th day of August, A. 
D. 1905, by electing Robert M. Henderson, President, John A. 
Wiley, Treasurer, and Alexander F. Nicholas, Secretary. 

Immediately following the meeting, communication was 
held with the various Regimental Organizations, for the pur- 
pose of securing a committee of three from each Regiment 
to meet the Commission, and decide on the location of the 
monuments. Accordingly on the 23rd day of October, 1905, 
the Commission together with the following gentlemen, com- 
mittees of the various Regiments: 

Wm. Clark, John Dauth and H. Synnamon, of the 3rd Regi- 
ment; John N. Reber, Frederick Markoe and Wm. Shew, of 
the 4th Regiment; J. N, Clarke, John I. Foller and John Rob- 
inson, of the 7th Regiment; J. A. Diebold, John Steel and 
Daniel McWilliams, of the Sth Regiment; met at Keedys- 
ville, Md., and on the morning of the 24th of October, in com- 
pany with General E. A. Carman of the War Department, 
Commissioner of Antietam Battlefield, who joined us at 
Sharpsburg, as per arrangement with the Secretary, visited 
the battlefield. 

After visiting the various points of the field, and looking 
for the supposed positions of the different Regiments at the 
time of the battle it was finally decided by a unanimous vote 
of those present, that the monuments be placed on Mansfield 
avenue in front of General Meade's Headquarters, as sug- 
gested by General Carman. 

It was also agreed that the monuments be pushed to a 
speedy completion, and that the dedication ceremonies take 
place on the 17th day of September, 1906. It was also agreed 
that all the monuments should be statue and of granite. 

At the close of the meeting the members returned to their 
homes well satisfied with the work they had accomplished. 

12 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

The Commission at once began work and asked for plans 
and designs for the four monuments from a number of eon- 
tractors throughout the country. After receiving them they 
were submitted to the Regimental Committees by the Com- 
mission, for their approval, and after many meetings it was 
finally agreed to accept the plans submitted by the Van Am- 
ringe Granite Company of Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Commission at once notified said company to prepare 
bonds and contract and submit the same to the Commission 
at the earliest possible moment, so that the work on the 
monuments might be started at once in order to be completed 
in time for the dedication on September 17, 1906. 

The contract and specifications and the bond for the faith- 
ful fulfilment of the contract were submitted by the Van 
Amringe Granite Company to the Commission and signed by 
two members of the Commission, John A. Wiley and Alex- 
ander F. Nicholas. The papers were forwarded to the Presi- 
dent for his signature, and on the day of their arrival at his 
home in Carlisle, Pa., he was stricken with apoplexy and 
died on the 29th day of January, 1906, leaving the contract 
unsigned. The remaining members of the Commission (the 
Governor not filling the vacancy caused by the death of 
their President) completed the work and on the 17th day 
of September, 1906, the monuments were dedicated in the 
presence of a large number of the survivors of the several 
commands and the Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, then Gover- 
nor, and his staff. 

Governor Pennypacker received the monuments on behalf 
of the State from the Commission and in turn presented them 
to the United States Government. They were received by 
Hon. John M. Schofield of the War Department, who repre- 
sented the Government to receive the same. 

All four of the granite pedestals have on one of their four 
faces the two corps badges, square sunk, the Twelfth Corps, 
the Maltese Cross enclosed by the large round disc of the 
First Corps. It will be noted that the four granite Statues 
described above show different poses and are historically cor- 
rect in their treatment as regards uniform accoutrements and 
tactics, and are in harmony with the fourteen statues pre- 
viously erected by the State of Pennsj-lvania on this same An- 
tietam field about two years previous. 

Eighth Regiment, Treasurer of the Commission. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 13 

This Commission, following the general plan of the previous 
rennsylvania Commission to Antietam of 1904, has assisted 
in furnishing a group of seventeen statues on that field which 
we believe eannot he duplicated on any battlefield or memorial 
field in the world, forming one of the most valuable con- 
tributions to the memorial work of this country, both in 
artistic merit and in perpetuating accurately the uniform, 
accoutrements and tactics of 1861-1865. 

It has been possible through the generous appropriations 
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, to secure, at a moder- 
ate price, the faithful representations of practically all the 
tactics employed by the well drilled Union army of the Civil 
War in its manouvres on the field, embracing all the details 
employed, from the first position of "Carry Arms," to prac- 
tically the last and most etlective detail of "Load and Fire." 
Detailed report of the ceremonies at the National Cemetery 
at Sharpsburg, and of the ceremonies of the Regimental As- 
sociations accompany this report. 

We are greatly indebted to Brigadier-General E. A. Carman 
of the Antieta3n Battlefield Commission of the War Depart- 
ment, for valuable aid and assistance given us at various 
times, enabling us to have everything in readiness for the dedi- 
cation. Our thanks are also due to Captain Charles W. 
Adams, Superintendent of the Battlefield, for assistance ren- 
dered, and to Adjutant-General Thomas J. Stewart for advice 
and help in our various duties. 

Our work is now completed and a consciousness of having 
done all that we thought was best for the Commonwealth 
and our comrades, and showing in our accounts, (which are 
enclosed) a saving of one thousand dollars unspent and re- 
turned to the State. 

We cannot close this report without expressing our great 
sorrow in the loss of our President, General R. M. Hender- 
son, who, in the short time we were permitted to hare him 
with us, had endeared himself to us by his kindly actions and 
lovable manners and willingness to assist in making the work 
a success. 

We have the honor to subscribe ourselves, 
Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servants, 



Pennsyhmriia at Antictam. 








































Expense of 





$36 50 

38 50 

89 44 

105 94 

32 20 

10 02 

4 00 

38 97 

21 30 

71 17 

25 06 ... 

SS 22 

13 91 


43 98 


4 93 

....'.'.'.'. "s.m '.'.'.'.'.'..'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. !;;;;:;:;; 

$300 64 
174 (6 

J 7 SO 
10 00 
10 SO 

4 40 

62 '50 

29 00 

50 50 

6 31 

59 83 

12 55 

106 SO 

162 75 

81 4.5 

428 13 

1^60 70 

813 S4 

16 21 

748 55 

5 60 

42! '.'.'.'.'.'.[[l'.'.[['.'.'.]'. 



15 CO 


5 00 

4S 05 

Balance in Iiands of Commission, .... 

$10,flOO $10,000 


, $765 47 
434 53 


$3,n55 54 

$1,200 $1,200 00 

Balance m hands of Auditor General 

$500 00 
544 46 

Check enclosed to Auditor General, .. 

$434 53 

$5,000 00 


Balance remaining in hands of the 
Commission (business not all closed 


Pennsylvania at Autietam. 15 


requests the liouor of your presence 

at the 

Dedicatiou and Transfer of Four Monuments Erected by the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania on the Autietam Battlefield, to Commemorate 
the Services of the 

3d Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 
4th Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 
7th Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 
Stli Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 

to be held in the 


on Monday, September ITth, 190G, 2 o'clock P. M. 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Secretary. John A. Wiley, Treasurer. 

Custom House, Philadelphia. Franklin, Pa. 


Antietam, Maryland, 
Monday, September 17, 1906. 

Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania: 

John A. Wiley, Treasurer. 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Secretary. 



3d Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 
4th Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 
7th Pennnsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 
8th Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps 

By the Regimental Associations, in the morning: between the hours of 

9 and 12 o'clock. 

16 Pcnnsylvatiia at Antictam. 


lu the National Cemeterj', Sharpsburg, at 2 o'clock, P. M. 
Alexander F. Nicholas, 4th Pennsylvania Reserves, 

Secretary of the Commission, Presiding. • 

MUSIC, The American Overture, E. Catliu. 

Keedysville Band. 
PRAYER, Rev. A. Judson Furman, D. D., Late Chaplain 7th Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves. 
MUSIC, Star Spangled Banner Keedysville Band 


General John A. Wiley, Treasurer of the Commission 

Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor of Pennsylvania. 


Hon. John C. Scofield, Chief Clerk of the War Department. • 

MUSIC, Grand Selection of War Songs, Ed. Beyer. 

Keedysville Band. 



Major G. L. Eberhart, Late Sth Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps. 

MUSIC, America, •■•• Audience led by the Keedysville Band. 

Rev. A. J. Furman, Late Chaplain 7th Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer 

Informal Reception by the Governor of Pennsylvania and Other Dis- 
tinguished Guests. 
My country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 
Of thee I sing! 
Land where our fathers died, 
Land of the pilgrims' pride. 
From every mountain side 
Let freedom ring. 

Our fathers' God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty. 

To Thee we sing; 
Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light; 
Protect us by Thy might. 

Great God, our King. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 17 



CU.MRADE NICHOLAS: Comrades, Ladies and Oentle- 
meu : It gives me great pleasure to introduce to you the 
Reverend A. Judson Furman, D. D., late Chaplain of 
the Seventh Pennsylvania Reserves, who will now offer 


O Lord, our God, Father of our spirit, and gift of grace, 
we desire to praise Thee today and magnify Thy loving kind- 
ness that has been over us all the years of our life. We 
.thank Thee Lord, that we can come in this day of peace 
and harmony between once contending factions, and unitedly 
praise the name of our God and our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, for the blessing Tliou hast shown us, for the riches 
of Thy love which Thou hast manifested toward us, and that 
we can as citizens of these United States praise God for our 
great country, for this land of freedom and this home of the 
brave, and praise Thee for the liberties we enjoy and that 
our hands have in a measure helped to produce under Thy 
Blessing and with Thy divine approbation. We desire to 
praise Thee for our great country, and to ask Thy blessing 
upon the President of these United States and all those who 
are over us in authority, upon the Governor and the Represen- 
tatives of our own State, and for all the states of our noble 
Union, and as we pray for Thy blessing on them we will re- 
member the days of darkness, the days of sorrow, the days 
of separation from loved friends, the days of battle, and the 
days of suffering in prison and on battle field, and in lonely 
hospital, but the Lord has been our shield and protector, and 
has blessed us abundantly, and now as we come to this place, 
surrounded by monuments and reminders of the dead, of all 

18 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

those who gave their lives as sacrifices for their country, we 
would ask Thy blessings upon each one of us that we may ra- 
member and enjoy these riches and these treasures in our 
own hearts, and thank God for them. And we would thank 
Thee that Thou hast helped these- soldiers to bring victory to 
our land and cement our country in the bonds that bind the 
State together, and that we can rejoice in God as having given 
us the grandest and noblest of the nations of the earth, but 
Lord as we look into these vacant tombs we are reminded that 
we are all passing away, and that this great army of the Re- 
public will soon be numbered with the pale sheet of nations of 
the dead. There are tottering over the grave now many of 
them, and they are leaning and bending on the staff and on the 
arms of friends, passing on through to that other land. Oh, 
God, we thank Thee for their bravery while they lived and for 
their valor, and for their service to our country, and how true 
they were to their country, and now God grant that in these 
days they may be truer still to Thee, and that they may love 
the great God, and that they may give themselves to the great 
Saviour and Redeemer of a lost world, and forbid that any of 
the old soldiers that participated in these battles, that saved 
our country, and cemented our country, forbid that any of 
them should be lost or left behind when the time comes to 
make up Thy. . . . Oh, God, grant that everyone of them may 
be saved through grace, that everyone of them may be num- 
bered with the soldiers of The Christ, that everyone of them 
may be given to Thee in covenant relations that shall never 
be forgotten or broken and as they journey on through life, 
some of them halting, limping, struggling and bending toward 
the land yonder, oh grant that they may have a transport 
into the regions of eternal night, — no, not eternal night, but 
eternal day, and escape the eternal night, to bask in the smiles 
of Thy glory in the Heavenly land. God, sustain them and 
help them that they may be true to Thee, that they may be 
workers in the cause of Christ, and that they be cleansed in 
the precious l)lood of Christ. O, God of our fathers, come and 
help us and bless us today, and may these reminders that 
are dedicated, and these addresses that are given help to per- 
petuate our loyalty to them and to our country, and may 
our zeal be to do the will of God Jind serve Him, that at 
last we mav be gathered together in the white robed throng 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 19 

where we may stand throughout in praising Thee, in mangi- 
fying Thy grace and Thy glory which has saved our country, 
saved us, and brought us where we shall be numbered with 
the white robed throng in all eternity. We ask this in Jesus' 
name. Amen. 

The Band then played 'The Star Spangled Banner." 

COMRADE NICHOLAS: Ladies and Gentlemen: Under an 
act of the Legislature of the State of Pennsylvania, approved 
on 11th day of May, 1905, the Honorable Samuel W. Penny- 
packer, Governor of the great State of Pennsylvania, honored 
three gentlemen of this Commonwealth by appointing them 
as Commissioners for the erection of monuments to the mem- 
ory of members of the Third, Fourth, Seventh and Eighth 
Regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserves. The names of these 
Commissioners were the late Judge Robert M. Henderson, 
General John A. Wiley and the speaker, Alexander F. Nich- 
olas. They have completed their labors in having the monu- 
ments erected which are being today dedicated by the various 
Regimental Organizations, and we are here this afternoon to 
transfer to the Governor of Pennsylvania, from the Commis- 
sioners, these monuments. I take great pleasure in introduc- 
ing to you General John A. Wiley, of Ffanklin, Pennsylvania, 
who will now transfer the monuments to the State of Penn- 

GENERAL JOHN A. WILEY: Governor Penny- 
packer, you were authorized by an act of the General As- 
sembly of Pennsylvania to erect monuments to the Third, 
Fourth, Seventh and Eighth Regiments of the Pennsylvania 
Reserve Corps at Antietam. This act met your approval 
and you we^re pleased to appoint three Commissioners 
whose duty it should be to erect the four monuments to per- 
petuate the glory and achievements of those Pennsylvanians 
who fought so well on this great battlefield, and rendered 
most excellent service on others. 

The honor of that appointment you gave to General R. N. 
Henderson, Comrade Alexander F. Nicholas and myself. 
General Henderson, after attending two or three meetings of 
the Commission, was called by the Master to the reward of 
a faithful and pure life. The fires of his patriotism never 
ceased to burn. His last acts of business were in the perform- 

20 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

ance of the duties which you assigned him; called to action 
in perpetuating the memory of the soldiers, dead and living, 
he was stricken. He was a brave man, a competent soldier, 
a true friend and an accomplished gentleman. 

The obligation of our appointment fell upon Comrade 
Nicholas and myself. We have endeavored to perform the 
duties assigned us and have caused to be erected four monu- 
ments, one each to the Third, Fourth, Seventh and Eighth 
Regiments, whose survivors this day have fittingly dedicated 
with appropriate services. It was our aim to secure good 
material, good work and artistic design, so that in so far as 
mortals may build for the future we have made permanent 
these memorials. 

"Rain shall uot fall nor storm descend to sap their settle base, 
Nor countless ages rolling past, their symmetry deface." 

We trust that your inspection brought approval and that 
you are pleased with the work of your Commission. We 
have the honor to turn them over to you, the representative 
of the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, expressing at 
the same time the highest appreciation and gratitude of the 
survivors and the friends of the dead heroes of these Regi- 
ments—to the State of Pennsylvania which you so ably re- 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Upon occasions like 
this, the anniversary of a great struggle upon this bloody 
field, forty-four years ago, we naturally become reminiscent. 
A company of soldiers raised in the early part of the war, 
in the village where I was born, became a company of the 
Pennsylvania Reserves. The woman who is now the leading 
lady in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, then a young 
girl, with the other girls of the village, with their own hands 
sewed together the uniforms those soldiers w^ore. I saw 
the reserves enter camp before they departed for service and 
I saw them afterwards at the Cooper Refreshment Saloon 
when they came back from service, and it is my happy fate 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 21 

that this hist ceremonial in which I am called upon on behalf 
of Pennsylvania, to accept monuments of regiments, is here 
upon this field, and these monuments are the monuments of 
regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserves. It is "with great 
pleasure and satisfaction, that I see here today so many sur- 
vivors of that brave corps of men. There was but one State of 
all the states of the Union which had an entire division in the 
armies in that war, and that state was the State of Penn- 
sylvania, and that division was the division of the Pennsyl- 
vania Keserves. They gained the first victory of the Army 
of the Potomac in 1S61, in July of that year; the first effort 
of the North to suppress rebellion ended in the failure of a 
bloody battle, and Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, sat in tlie Capitol at Washington, watching with every 
minute the approach of the successful rebel army. 

Think of what would have been the result had they reached 
the Capitol at Washington. The confederacy recognized by 
all nations abroad and its soldiers in possession of the Capitol, 
and the war a failure. Just then, within two days, 17,000 
men came to the rescue. The danger disappeared; every man 
of the 17,000 men was a Pennsylvanian and a member of the 
Pennsylvania Reserves. (Applause.) 

The times have changed and we have changed with them. 
This is a period of peace and plenty. The ivy which clings 
around these columns covers with green, the graves thV^y 
made. The timid rabbit crouches in safety at our feet, upon 
this rostrum itself, and no man rises to disturb him. Gath- 
ered around tiere, I see the faces of men of the North and 
men of the South who alike in motive and patriotism have 
assembled here today to do honor to those brave men who 
fought this fight long years ago, upon this field. 

It is my pleasure, sir, to accept these monuments which 
have been erected, and 1 present them to you, sir, represent- 
ing the Government of the United States, (addressing Hon. 
John C. Schofield, representing the United States Govern- 
ment), with the full assurance that for all time to come 
they will be tenderly preserved and cared for. (Applause.) 

COMRADE NICHOLAS: I take pleasure in presenting to 
you the Hon. John C. Schofield, from the War Department 
who will receive the monuments on behalf of the United 
States (^lovernment. 

22 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


Tw'o events in our national life stand out in bold relief 
above all others; the establishment of the Nation and the 
preservation of the Nation. The fathers laid wide and deep 
the foundations of the Eepublic; in truth they builded even 
better than they knew. But the splendid structure which 
the}' began was bonded together loosely. Stone upon stone 
the courses rose, but they were laid in sand. For seventy 
years the structure bore unscathed the storms that beat 
upon it. Sometimes swaying as the fierce winds of popular 
passion and conflicting interests swept over it, no stone was 
yet sliaken from its place, it stood unharmed in all its strength 
and beauty. Then came the awful holacaust of a fratricidal 
war that for four terrible years shook the national structure 
from turret to foundation stone. But when the war ended, 
behold, out of the darkness and gloom it emerged more splen- 
did than before, upright and every stone in place, but 
cemented together now by the blood of a common brotherhood 
into one mass, inseparable and indestructible forevermore. 

Forty years have passed since the soldiers saved the Union 
and gave perpetuity to the system of government under which 
it is our privilege to live. The Republic has grown in num- 
bers from 33,000,000 people to 85,000,000, and in wealth from 
IG billions of dollars to 111 billions. Then we had |450,000,000 
in circulation; now there are |2,900,000,000— 133 per capita 
instead of |14. Before the Civil War there were 31,000 miles 
of railways in operation; now there are 215,000. Our com- 
merce, domestic and foreign, has grown to enormous propor- 
tions. In material progress and prosperity, in the wealth and 
development of its resources, and in its commanding position 
as a great power, the United States today stands foremost 
ambng the nations of the earth. 

In a large sense, these things the soldiers did. But for 
the patriotism, the A'alor and the sacrifices of the Union sol- 
dier, who can say how many ditferent flags would be flying 
today over the wide territory that now acknowledges alle- 
giance to one flag alone — the Stars and Stripes forever? Ex- 
cept for their achievement, instead of a union of the States, 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 23 

one and indissoluble, there would have been a division, and 
no man knows whether the vast area that lies between the 
Atlantic and the Pacific, the Great Lakes and the Gulf, would 
now be occupied by two sovereignities or by twenty. But 
it is certain that had it not been for the Union soldier at 
Antietam and Gettysburg, at Vieksburg, Chattanooga and Ap- 
pomattox— had it not been for all the blood-bought Union vic- 
tories, culminating in the overthrow of the Confederacy— 
the world would have never seen the marvellous progress that 
we have made in the forty years since the war closed. If it 
be true that in our Republican ins'titutions lies the hope of 
the world, then all mankind are forever debtors to the men 
who loved the Union and fought to preserve it. 

A great German historian has described our Civil War as 
''the mightiest struggle and most glorious victory as yet re- 
corded in human annals." One of the most momentous and 
significant events of that great war was the battle that surged 
over these peaceful fields forty-four years ago today. It 
brought to an end the first of two unsuccessful attempts made 
by the Southern army to invade the North, and it gave free- 
dom to more than 3,000,000 human beings held in the bondage 
of slavery. The circumstances made an effective setting for the 
battle of Antietam. It was a time when the hopes of the Con- 
federacy were highest; its prospects had never been brighter. 
Following a succession of victories in the South, the Confeder- 
ates had defeated a Union force in Kentucky; had occupied 
Lexington, ami were threatening Louisville and Cincinnati. 
Lee's invasion of Maryland now threatened Washington, Balti- 
more, Harrisburg and Philadelphia. By an address issued to 
the people of Maryland he endeavored to win their allegiance 
to the Southern cause, and if he should win a decisive battle 
it was the intention of the Confederate States to propose a 
peace <'onditioned upon the recognition of their independence. 
The possible intervention of Europe at this period was a 
subject of hope to the Confederates, and correspondingly one 
of fear to the Federal Government. 

While in the South there was confidence and hope, through- 
out the North on the other hand the feeling approached Con- 
sternation and panic, and in administration circles at Wash- 
ington there was uneasiness, depression and gloom. As we 
study the situation in the light of history it is apparent that 

24 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

the country was in grave danger then, that there was abund- 
ant cause for anxiety and alarm. 

Such was the condition of affairs when the Army of the 
Potomac under McClellan, somewhat dispirited and demoral- 
ized by its reverses and ill fortunes, met the veterans of the 
Confederacv, led by Lee, Longstreet and Jackson-the very 
flower of Southern chivalry, flushed with victories, confident 
of their powers, their spirit the highest-and in battle memor- 
able as the bloodiest single day's fighting of the war stopped 
the northward march of Lee and his army, and forced them 
back with heavy loss be'yond the Potomac into Virginia. It 
was a victorv for the Union cause, but both sides paid for 
it dearly. Said Horace Greely: -When the sun set on the 
17th day of September, 1862 it shut from sight the bloodiest 
day in American history." 

Lincoln's immortal words fit eviery occasion of this kind: 
''The world will little note nor long remember what we say 
here It can never i^orget what they did here." We are here 
today because the world has not forgotten, because Pennsyl- 
vania has long remembered, what her soldiers did here. And 
well she may remember, for Pennsylvania furnished more 
than a third of the Union troops at Antietam, and they fought, 
as they always did, with signal bravery, sustaining heavy 
losses A thought that impresses me strongly today lies in 
the reflection that although a generation has passed away 
since the war ended, the great Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania still remembers; that not in the first flush of grati- 
tude but long years after the event, she has provided these 
beautiful and costly memorials, and has assembled here in 
tlie persons of her Governor and other distinguished citizens 
of the State to do honor to those brave soldiers of hers, living 
and dead, whose heroic deeds on this battlefield forty-four 
years ago have made the name of Antietam illustrious. Thus 
Pennsylvania honors herself and sets an example that may 
well be followed by her sister States whose citizen-soldiers 
crave the last full measure of devotion to the Union on this 
and other batlefields of our great war. I like these recent 
verses of Henry Van Dyke: 


Pennsylvania at Antietam. 25 

"Count not the cost of honor to the dead! 

The tribute that a mighty nation pays 

To those who loved her well in former days 

Means more than gratitude for glories fled; 

For every noble man that she hath bred 

Immortalized by art's immortal praise, 

Lives in the bronze and marble that we raise, 

To lead our sons as he our fathers led. 

These monuments of manhood, brave and high, 

Do more than forts or battleships to keep 

Our dear-bought liberty. They fortify 

The heart of youth with valor wise and deep; 

They build eternal bulwarks, and command 

Eternal strength to guard our native land." 

Governor Pennypacker and gentlemen of the Antietam 
Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, this battlefield, 
hallowed by the blood of patriots and consecrated 
by their sacrifices, their hardships and privations, now 
belongs to the Nation. As the representative of tha 
Federal Government which owes its existence today 
to the men who wore the blue, and in the name 
of the Secretary of War, charged with the custody of this 
sacred ground, I accept these monuments from the State of 

Happily for us all, the sons and grandsons of men who 
wore the blue and men who wore the gray are marching to- 
gether now, shoulder to shoulder, under one flag, the glorious 
emblem of the best government on earth — a government that 
will forever cherish and preserve these memorials dedicated 
to soldiers of Pennsylvania who helped to save the Union and 
to restore to every American citizen the priceless blessings 
of peace and orderly liberty. 

The Band again played ^'Star Spangled Banner." 

COMRADE NICHOLAS: I take great pleasure in introduc- 
ing to you Major G. L. Eberhart, Brigade Quarter-Master, who 
will now address you. 

26 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


Goveruor Pennypacker, Comrades, Ladies and Fellow Citi- 
zens: My friend and comrade, General John A. Wiley, was, I 
fear, entirely to complimentary when he entered my name on 
the program of this day's ceremonies as the "Orator of the 

But, if I were an orator, what a glorious theme would I 
have on which to dwell! What a subject with which to stir 
your blood, and bid your tongues to cry out in bitter curses, 
and deep damnation on the act of treason committed on this 
field forty-four years ago today. 

It is one of the bloodiest crimes against civilized society 
that blackens the history of mankind. And had I the power 
of speech to depict it in fitting terms, I would make every 
stone to cry out, every leaf that now flutters on these branches 
in the breeze of this lovely autumn day to utter its bitter 
denounciation and indignation on the foul conspiracy that 
converted these fair fields of happy homes into the mauso- 
leum of brave men, valiant soldiers, who died that our country 
might live. 

The volunteer soldier has been the idol of his country ever 
since the dawn of civilization; and his manhood and his prow- 
ess are as essential to the protection of the good order of 
society, and to life and property, as are rains of heaven to 
the life of the vegetable world. 

Some good people tell us that war is wrong; and, under 
no circumstances is it justifiable, but the history of civilized 
society is an absolute and unanswerable refutation of the alle- 

And when the anarchist and the incendiary defy the civil 
law, openly deride the civil officers, laugh at their powerless 
efforts to control the mob, hoot in derision at the lawfully con- 
stituted authorities of the land, then we see where our pro- 
tection to home and life is to be found in the gloomy, bloody 
hours of lawless tumult and social disorder. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 27 

When our streets turn red with innocent blood of childhood 
and hoary age, where do we turn, to whom do we appeal for 
aid and succor from the demons of discord? 

Then, as it has been in all ages, and all climes, we look to 
that one brave, selfsacrificing paragon of all men— the volun- 
teer soldier! 

And it seemed to be ordered in the beginning of the Slave- 
holders Rebellion that we were to have no peace until, in 
God's own good time He would command the stormy waves 
of treason and discord to cease. 

Miriam, the sister of Moses, the great, the immortal law- 
giver, took a timbrel in her hand, and, as the waters of the 
Red Sea parted that her kindred might march through on dry 
land from oppression and slavery, she and all the hosts of 
Israel sang to the Lord "for He hath triumphed gloriously; 
the horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea. The Lord 
is a man of war." 

And so, if we look back into profane history we shall find 
striking instances to show that God, indeed, is a man of 
war; and uses the armies of nations as His instruments with 
Avhich to punish nations for their national sins and wicked- 

And if we review the history of nations from the earliest 
dawn of civilization to the present day we will plainly dis- 
cern that, in all great insurrectionary upheavals of 
human society the avenging hand of the Divine 
Ruler of the Universe is visible. And] when the 
Demons of Hell, of Averice and Greed begin to scat- 
ter abroad the seeds of Discord, the soldier — that Heaven-born 
citizen of civilized government rises up with his life in his 
hand ready to risk all that is worth living for that Peace, 
Justice, Honor and Prosperity may rule and reign over his 
own beloved land. 

O! what sacrifices the volunteer soldier will make for land 
and home! 

If we look back twenty-four hundred years or thereabouts 

"Old Plata ca's Day," 

we have a lesson which teaches us that no sacrifice is too 
great for the volunteer soldier. 

28 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

We are taught beyoud auy shadow of doubt that mau has 
been iu all ages the same brave, treacherous, heroic 
villian, and at the same time the paragon of all 
that is noble, valiant and splendid in heroism and unselhsh, 
selfsacriticiug manhood 

Look back more than two thousand years, if you will, with 
me to the plains of Marathon on the eastern coast of Attica. 

We see there ten generals holding a council of war. 

They see approaching an army which within fifty years had 
invaded and broken down and enslaved nearly all the then 
civilized kingdoms and nations on earth. 

The small army then under the command of those ten men, 
could have but little hope of escaping annihilation by the 
boasting legions of the great King Darius. But the battle 
is not alvN.iys to the strong nor victory to the largest army. 
One man with God and the right can conquer the world. 

I refer now to the battle of Marathon in which eleven thou- 
sand Plataeans met one hundred thousand Persians. Up to 
that fine September morning, 490 B. C. — the battle of Antie- 
tam was fought in September, A. 1). 1862 — the Medes and Per- 
sians had been deemed invincible. Nevertheless in the face 
of this great disparity of numbers, the order was given: 

On Sons of Greeks! 
Strike, till the last armed foe expires! 
Strike for your alters and your fires! 
Strike for the green graves of your sires! 
God and your native land. 

They fought as only brave heroic men can fight. They 
fought as only brave men can battle for the right in Free- 
dom's cause. 

Of the Persians, six thousand four hundred lay dead on 
the bloody field. The Placatean dead were one hundred and 

A high mound of earth was thrown over the dead of the 
Athenian army. Ten columns were erected on the battlefield 
— one in honor of each Athenian tfibe — and on those shafts 
were engraved or cut the names of the heroes who fell on 
Immortality's green field that day. 

Pausaniiis, the antiguarian, says he read the names on 
those monuments six hundred years after they were erected. 
The monuments and the names on them long years ago crum- 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


bled to dust, but the mound still marks the spot where lie 
the ashes of those inviucibles of antiquity. 

But were I endowed with the eloquence of an archangel and 
o-iven all the long years of Eternity in which to relate the 
thrilling storv I fear I could not relate in fitting terms all 
that the soldier has achieved, all the selfsacrifices he has en- 
dured for humanity's sake and the glory of God. 

On this battlefield of Antietam, as on many a bloody field 
before where men fought and died for the rights of man, 
bloody treason stalked on the 17th day of September, A. D. 
1862, as the demons of hell had walked abroad in times past. 
When the bloody conflict was hottest and brave noble pat- 
riots were falling, call after call was made for re-enforcements 
but no re-enforcements responded. Why they came not no 
one seemed to know but on the bloody useless struggle went. 
Blood ran in torrents. Heroes, patriots, rebels and all went 
down "in one red burial blent." But still no re-enforcements 
appeared in the sanguinary arena. Anon, when the slaugh- 
ter seemed complete and no more blood was there to shed, the 
head of bloody treason's forces asked for "a. truce ^i two 
days to bury the dead." It was granted. The smoke of 
battle cleared away; the sun shone as in the fields of Para- 
dise but the raven croaked; and instead of burying his dead 
the leader of the Kebel hoardes had occupied the truce assid- 
uously in retreating to the South side of the Potomac river 
with his routed and defeated army. Oh, was ever fouler 
treason on earth my countrymen than was on the battlefield 
of Antietam? 

Our troops had to perform the double duty of interring our 
own and the enemy's dead. The battle w\as on Wednesday. 
On Sunday following I saw one of our burial detail inter six 
hundred and twenty-eight of fhe enemy in one trench near the 
'^Bloody Lane." But the right must and will prevail as it 
has in all the ages past, and all hidden things will be revealed. 
This blood bought land of ours has spread from the Atantic 
to the Pacific and is blessed with every element of happiness 
and prosperity that it has ever entered into the heart of 
civilized man to conceive or desire. The Supreme Ruler of 
the ITniverse never intended that this hemisphere of His 
footstool should be cursed by human slavery. He never in- 
tended that one man should make a slave or beast of burden 
of another. Our forefathers tried the experiment, but it 

30 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

was not until for every drop of blood drawn by the slave- 
driver's lash another had been drawn from our white veins 
by the sword of treason that substantial peace, prosperity 
and happiness crowned our hills and illumined our valley 
with a glory of peace and prosperity that is the administra- 
tion of all the nations of the civilized world. It was never 
intended that the continent of North America should long be 
cursed by the thorns and brambles and date of discord which 
the institution of human slavery sowed in the soil of the 
colonies. Therefore, no other results could have followed 
the inauguration of the war begun in April in the year of 
gi'ace, 1861, for the perpetuation of human slavery in the 
United States. Had the men who fired on the U. S. flag 
floating over Fort Sumpter in April A. D. 1861, been endowed 
with suflicient mystical lore to interpret the explosions of 
their shells they would have heard the voices of four million 
people shouting in exclamations of joy: ''We'se free, foreber 
free!" And if it had been the will of God, as intimated by 
Mr, Lincoln, that the conflict should continue till, for every 
drop of blood drawn by the slave driver's lash, one should be 
drawn by the sword, what would have been the end of the 
terrible punishment thus inflicted on the people involved in 
the great crime? 

Who can picture the frightful disaster? And as we, oh 
comrades! marched months and years amid the warring of 
the elements and the pangs of deprivation, hunger, cold and 
disease, and faced the tearing and destruction of life and limb 
by shot and shell and wasting of body by disease, and saw 
as we lay in delirium on our hospital cots the loved ones at 
home and heard the sweet songs to wake only to find no loved 
voice to cheer or hand to soothe the pain. Oh, the misery of 
it! And men say there is no Nemises, no avenging deity to 
protect the downtrodden and oppressed. Ah, there is a Div- 
inity that shapes our ends, rough-hew them how we may, and, 
as one of the fathers of our Republic declared: '^I tremble 
for my country when I reflect that a just God rules the world 
and that His vengeance can not sleep forever." 

Sleep on, sleep well, O comrades dear! May Heaven's dews 
scatter their brightest pearls on thy holy graves. Kings have 
no such royal couch as the green that folds thee in glory 
here. It is meet and right and just, therefore, that we, thy 
comrades here, in his sacred field and this line of battle, 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 31 

where as only patriots can, our comrades of the Third and 
Fourth and Seventh and Eighth Regiments of the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserve Volunteer Corps stood in front of treason's 
shot and shell and as heroes and only patriots can, died on 
the 17th day of September, A. D. 1862, that freedom and free 
men shall continue to live and rule in freedom's clime till 
the great Angel with one foot on the land, one on the sea, 
shall declare that Time shall be no more. 

COMRADE NICHOLAS: I should like to make a suggestion 
at this time. While w-alking over this battlefield a few weeks 
ago, looking upon the graves of hundreds of men from Penn- 
sylvania who gave up their lives for the salvation of this 
government, and again, while sitting here this afternoon, 
the suggestion came to me most forcibly that Pennsylvania 
has not yet done her full duty. I have thought, although I 
don't think that I have expressed that opinion to any other 
man, that Pennsylvania should have in sight of these mounds 
a State Monument in honor of the men who lie right in that 
plot. (Applause.) 

I hope that as long as we remain here (and I know by the 
looks of a good many of you bald-headed fellows down there, 
that you are going to remain here quite a long time) that you 
will agitate this matter and I am sure that our gaod friend 
Governor Pennypackier will be glad to sign a bill passed by 
the next legislature for such a purpose. 

I now want to introduce to you a friend and a soldier, a 
man I know you will all like to hear, one who is always 
ready and willing to do what he can for the benefit of the 
comrades of the Grand Army of the Republic. I take great 
pleasure in introducing to you the Adjutant General of Penn- 
sylvania, Comrade Thomas J. Stewart, w^ho will now address 
you. (Applause.) 


Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am glad that my good 
friend. Comrade Nicholas, has made the statement that only 
the bald-headed men will remain. I can get out; according 
to this I can go most any time. I am rather surprised that I 
was called upon this afternoon to address you. I looked over 

^^2 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

this programme and I was verj thankful that on that pro- 
gramme the usual line following the announcements of speak- 
ers, ''and others" did not appear. I thought now I will just 
have a nice time this afternoon and the Chairman wonld not 
try to ring in any of the old relics or chestnuts on this occa- 
sion, but I am glad to be here notwithstanding that I am 
being punished, and I am sure that it is a pleasure and that 
it must be esteemed a great privilege to be present here today 
as a Pennsylvanian at Antietam, in the state of Maryland; 
to be here as a Pennsylvanian representing and acting for a 
great commonwealth in paying tribute to her soldiers who 
44 years ago on this battlefield gave their lives to the chances 
and hazzard of war. It is of record and it has been often 
mentioned today both slk the dedication of the monuments and 
here this afternoon, that the 17th of September, 1862, on 
these fields round about was the bloodiest day in all of that 
conflict, and on these fields in their place in that glorious army 
of the Union stood some of Pennsylvania's sons to whom we 
pay honors today. Two years ago we came to this place and 
dedicated monuments to some of Pennsylvania's regiments 
and today we came to dedicate monuments to some of the 
Pennsylvania Reserves. • The Division, as the Governor has 
stated, was the only division of the whole army of the Union 
composed of three year's troops from one state and that gave 
to the Union Army, to history and to the military annals of 
the world three of the great names that shine out with all 
their greatness. The memorable Meade, the splendid Rey- 
nolds and the superb Hancock. (Applause.) The Reserves 
of this regiment and I include the 128th, which dedicated its 
monument today as well, are here only in part but they come, 
as my friend the Honorable John C. Schofield, representing 
the War Department, said, long after tlie conflict, and in the 
days of peace and today you men of the reserves glory in your 
work; there is not a name on all these fields; there is not a 
musket; there are no cannons with their mouths blazing with 
fire and belchiug forth death; there are no fixed bayonets, 
and when this day shall close there will not be in your hand a 
bayonet with a reddened point covered with blood, on all 
these fields round about tonight, no unbnried corpse of either 
a gallant rider or a stalwart foeman will lie on these fields 
unsepulchred. Tomorrow there will be no weeping orphan 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 33 

or freshly widowed wife who will mourn the battle loss of 
today. All that is past and the bitterness has almost gone, 
and now the whole Union unites in one song with gladness 
and one glory binds up the garnered sheaves, and we are 
here today as Pennsylvanians, as Americans to express our 
admiraitiou and our love for the men who fell here in the 
horrible shock of war and join with those who have survived 
those times; of those who have fallen by the wayside and 
the weary march; have fallen by the way from the wounds re- 
ceived in the days of battle. AVe are here to express our ad- 
mljiration and our love for them and we are here to place a 
monument to their memory and their valor. We place it for 
the living as well as for the dead. Many have gone, but I 
feeil that you believe as I believe that they are here today; 
they are present in this place to receive your comradly greet- 
ings; they are present here to see what you are to do, and 
they are mindful of what you say and of what you feel. They 
are here to witness the dedication of this token of love and of 
memory which you have placed on this field and dedicated 
and placed as a reminder from Pennsylvania to posterity. 
Emblematic of the part that Pennsylvania played and per- 
formed in the glory and greatness of this mighty nation of 
ours. The memory of this field is one that will live with 
you forever. My memory of this field is that of boyhood days, 
and even noAV 1 feel a thrill of pride and of enthusiasm, and 
I felt it then when as a boy in my home town I read of Antie- 
tam and of the gallant charge of that regiment from my 
home town, the Fifty-first Pennsylvania, over the bridge 
yonder under the magnificent leadership of the intrepid Hart- 
ranft. (Applause.) If I shall be stirred with memories such 
as that, oh how sweet and how^ glorious must be your mem- 
ories as you come together on this sod, and place these monu- 
ments that are given to you through the liberality and glad- 
ness and pride of your native state to be a rtributie to the 
valor of her sons. (Applause,) 

We who were not with you 44 years ago in the fiery and 
momentous scene of these fields are not unmindful of what 
you did, and we do feel with you and believe with you that the 
inspiration of this occasion is a fitting thing and a good 
thing. It is a good thing to ponder over heroic deeds and 
with the heroes we are truly in sympathy, 

^^. Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

The mouuments that you have placed upon this field this 
day will tell to men of other days the deeds of the men of 
the Third, Fourth, Seventh and Eighth Pennsylvania Reserves. 
They will stand grandly and gloriously for the Union and for 
liberty, and they will represent their comrades from Pennsyl- 
vania on this field and with their comrades from all the other 
states help to write on the eternal granite the history of 
imperishable fame and the matchless bravery of the Union 
soldier and the American Volunteer. (Applause.) 

It is a glorious thing to be here. As long as this nation 
lasts the story of Antietam will be told and when these monu- 
ments have crumbled to dust Antietam's story will live in the 
greatness of your example and in the glorious deeds done on 
this field. As long as the wind shall blow across yonder sun- 
ken road they will sing the requiem for the mighty dead of 
this field; as long as the walls of the Dunkard Church shall 
stand they will seem to tell the story of the awful carnage 
of that place, and as long as this nation lasts its starry banner 
will ever float in guardianship, in honor and in tribute above 
this silent city of sleeping heroes. 

And now as we draw near the close of these ceremonies and 
as we turn over this responsibility of preserving these monu- 
ments to our nation, soldier and citizen, old and young men 
andl women let there be in our hearts a resolve that the 
country has cost so much in life and blood and treasure, and 
for which so many of our young manhood stepped behind the 
veil of time, shall have our continued affection; and that our 
prayers shall be for her continuance, for her honor, and for 
her peace. And let us be assured that the devotion and the 
loyalty, and the patriotism evidenced on this and other fields 
of conflict will inspire the young men of this and other genera- 
tions to deeds and lives of patriotism, and to keep them. 
North and South, East and West, all true and loyal defenders 
of this country and its flag, and with all the blessings which, 
we as a people enjoy shall add to make this great Republic of 
ours the big conservitor of the world's peace and of the 
world's riches. I thank you. (Long continued applause.) 

COMRADE NICHOLAS: Reverend A. Judson Furman, D. 
D., will close with a benediction. 

The audience sang two verses of "AmCTica," and Dr. Fur- 
man pronounced the benediction. 


Third Regiment P. R.V. C. 

32nd Pennsylvania Infantry 

Petinsyhania at Antietam. 35 

MENT (32nd Pa. Vol.), P. R. V. C. 

AT 10 A. M., September 17th, 1906, Henderson Synnamon, 
Co. I, 3rd Regiment, who had been selected by the Com- 
mittee to preside on this occasion, called the assemb- 
lage to order. 

The proceedings opened with an overture by the Keedysville 
Brass Band, followed by ''Hail Columbia." The Chairman 
then extended a cordial welcome to all present, soldiers and • 
guests assembled in honor of this memorable event in the 
history of the Regiment, who had come from far and near to 
show by their presence the respect they felt for the gallant 
soldiers of the 3rd Regiment Infantry, Pennsylvania Reserve 
Volunteer Corps, and appreciation of their heroic conduct on 
this historic field. It was a matter of highest gratification 
to the members of the 3rd Regiment that the dear old Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, which in the fervor of loyalty 
they had left over 45 years ago to aid their companions in 
arms in the support of the American government and the 
preservation of the grand old Union had thought fit to give 
expression to the patriotic recognition of these survivors on 
the part of the people of the State by the erection of this 
splendid and costly monument to the memory of the living 
and the dead who by their valor and courageous devotion to 
duty upheld the honor of the Nation and State in this memor- 
able action. By the enforced absence of Col. H. G. Sickel 
caused by illness, the Regiment in this engagement and during 
the Maryland C ^mpaigns was ably commanded by Lieut. Col. 
John Clark, and realizing fully and well the masterly manner 
in which he manouvred his men in this campaign with its 
many trials and vicissitudes and its arduous and trying 
marches the Committee has deemed it eminently fitting that 
his only son the Hon. Geo. S. Clark, Holmesburg, Philadelphia, 
should make the opening address and he having kindly con- 
sented, I have the honor to introduce to you Mr. Geo, S, 

36 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


Mr. Cluiirman, Ladies and Gentlemen: We meet here today to discharge 
a solemn and patriotic duty. 

As Pennsylvanians, representing to some degree, that mighty Common- 
wealth, we are giad to take part in the august ceremonies of the day, 
and to witness the dedication of the splendid and enduring monuments 
erected on this historic field by the people of Pennsylvania, through the 
action of both housed of the Legislature and the executive authority, in 
honor of her brave regiments who heroically battled here for the in- 
tegrity of the National Union, and the honor of the American flag. 
I am deeply sensible of the honor and privilege conferred upon me per- 
sonally, in having been designated by the committee of the veterans of 
the Thirty-Second Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry of the Line, more gener- 
ally and popularly known as the Third Regiment, Pennsylvania Resei've 
Volunteer Corps, to speak for them during these ceremonies. I am par- 
ticularly appreciative of the kindness of the men of the Third Regiment, 
Decause I know that the distinction they have conferred upon me is an 
evidence of the feelings of respect and regard on their part for the memory 
of their comrade and friend, my dear father, the late Lieutenant-Colonel 
John Clark who had the honor to command them during the battle of 
Antietam, the most important action in which they were engaged during 
the Civil War, the gallant Colonel Sickel having been compelled by severe 
illness, to give up the charge on September 1, and to devote some time to 
the restortion of his health and strength, seriously impaired by the arduous 
work of the previous campaigns. 

I know that Lieutenant Colonel Clark had the highest regard and 
affection for the officers and men of the regiment, with whom he was 
justly proud of having served, and, that to the day of his death, the 
memories of that service, and of those dear friends and comrades, were 
among the most cherished feelings of his heart. 

It is not for me to attempt a detailed account or description of the 
battle of Antietam. 

As one of the most sanguinary and hotly contested engagements of 
the great Avar, decisive in its results and far reaching in its influence, 
it has been many times the theme of the historian, the essayist and the 
critic, and has been extensively written about by able writers, No."th and 
South, military and civil, so that opinions from all points of view have 
been fully and freely expressed, and complete information in regard to 
all the details has been placed on record; so that all who wish to study 
the various phases and effects of the battle have ample opportunity to 
do so. 

We know that General Robert E. Lee, the greatest of the Southern 
commanders crossed the Potomac river with his veteran and victorious 
army, threatening Baltimore and Washington, and full of high hopes and 
expectations that by overcoming the TTnion army, supposed to be dis- 
couraged and weakened by its recent reverses and losses in the South, 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 37 

he could at ouce dictate a favorable peace from the capital of the 
country, or begin an invasion of the North with all the prestige of 
recent victory, which would not only cause discouragement to his adver- 
saries, but would rouse up the Southern sympathizers in Maryland, from 
whom he could recruit his forces. 

His advance into Northern territory might also be expected to provide 
his army with ample resources for its subsistence and equipment. 

The various corps of that army were led by men whose valor and ability 
had been demonstrated on many occasions, and who partly enjoyed the 
confidence of their chief. At the head of one of the corps was the 
renowned General "Stonewall" Jackson, the greatest of Lee's subordin- 

Thus, we may believe, that it was indeed with high hopes of a great 
victory, and of far reaching results, leading to ultimate separation of the 
insurgent states from the Union, and an achievement of all that was 
contended for by their side, that the Confederate army entered into this 
prolonged and bloody action. 

The people of the North were shocked, dismayed and discouraged by 
the misfortunes and reverses of the armies of the United States, operat- 
ing in Virginia, and were fully aware of the fact that the capital was 
threatened and that upon the momentous results of the great battle 
about to be fought probably depended the fate of the nation, and, if 
the Conferedate army, was successful, would certainly lead to the im- 
mediate invasion of the North by a victorious army, commanded by one 
of the greatest masters of the military art of his time, 

On September 2, 1862, President Lincoln appointed that splendid soldier 
and wonderful military organizer, General George B. McClellan as com- 
mander of the broken and defeated armies concentrated around Washing- 
ton; and that officer proceeded, with marvellous skill and energy, to place 
his forces in such a condition as to enable them to operate with efficiency 
against the invading enemy. 

The army and the commander, having full confidence in each other, 
were now prepared to act together in the approaching encounter, and we 
may believe that the magnificent carnage, extraordinary endurance and un- 
yielding persistence shown by the men at that time, were inspired not 
only by devotion to duty, defence of their own territory, and hopes to 
redeem, by a great victory, the several defeats they had suffered, but also 
by attachment to the person of their commander, and confidence in his 
professional skill and judgment. At the urgent request of Governor Cur- 
tin of Pennsylvania, Major General John F. Reynolds had been taken 
from the command of the division of Pennsylvania Reserves, and sent to 
Harrisburg, to organize the seventy-five thousand men called out by the 
governor, for the defence of that state. 

General Meade of the Second Brigade succeeded to the command of 
the division. George Gordon Meade, the first commander of the Second 
Brigade, M'as a soldier of remarkable ability who was destined to win im- 
perishable fame as commander of the victorious National army at Gettys- 

He, with General Reynolds, may well be taken as types of the ideal 

38 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

American soldier. The mention of their names now, after all the years 
which have elapsed since the war, will, at any rate, cause great enthus- 
iasm, at any meeting of the men who served under their command. Ac- 
complished gentlemen, thoroughly trained in the military profession, pos- 
sessing the finest attributes of manhood, they inspired the instinctive con- 
fidence of the officers and men, who Avould follow wherever they lead, 
even to death itself. 

General Reynolds fell at Gettysburg, mourned by the army and nation. 

At Antietam the 2d Brigade was commanded by Col. Magilton, of the 
4th Regiment. The division ^vas attached to the First Corps under General 
Joseph Hooker. In all the previous actions in which they had been 
engaged the Pennsylvania Reserves had so conducted themselves as to 
merit and receive the warm commendation of the commanding generals, 
and had established for themselves a reputation second to that of no 
division in the army for courage, loyalty and devotion. On the occasion 
of the battle of Antietam, however, it may be partly said that they 
not only sustained that well established reputation, but achieved new 
honors and added to their glory by their efforts on this field when their 
endurance and bravery was tested to the very uttermost, in their long 
continued and victorious encounter with the very flower of the Southern 
army under their favorite commander, General Stonewall Jackson. 

The Pennsylvania General, George B. McClellan, might well rely with 
absolute confidence upon the soldierly qualities of men trained under such 
commanders as McCall, Meade, Reynolds and Ord, and gathered together 
into one division, representing every part of his native state. 

Other Pennsylvania Reserve monuments are-to be dedicated here today, 
and the distinguished governor of that Commonwealth, accompanied by 
many other dignitaries of the state, and high officials of the National 
Government, are here to take part in the ceremonies, and to show by 
their presence and participation, the interest of the people of the State 
and nation, in honoring the memory of those who fought for the Union 
on this field. If those of us who are not military men and were not 
present when the battle of Antietam was fought, are so profoundly im- 
pressed on this occasion, what must be the feelings of the survivors of 
the battle as perhaps they for the first time since it occurred forty-four 
years ago, are present on this field to view the scene of that great action 
where, as young men, they took such an honorable part. It must indeed 
be a matter of profound gratification to them that their services are 
yet remembered by this state, which signifies its approval and apprecia- 
tion by placing these splendid and permanent monuments on this field to 
commemorate the noble qualities of her soldiers as exhibited on that memor- 
able occasion. Veterans of the Third Regiment, this monument is placed 
here today by Pennsylvania, because the battle of Antietam was the most 
important and hotly contested action in which you took part. It is a 
monument in honor of the valor and patriotism of those who fell here 
and those who fell on other fields, in fact of all members of the command 
who served with it during the Civil War. It is the monument of the 
Third Regiment, erected in honor of not only the dead but of the living 
and should be viewed in turn by every surviving soldier of the regiment 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 39 

aud bis family. Tliis, however, is probably impossible, and therefore every 
family should have on the walls of its home, a picture of the monument 
to be handed down as a sacred heir loom from generation to generation. 

That gallant officer aud worthy gentleman. Major E. M. Woodward, of 
the* Second Regiment, P. R. V. C, wrote and published in 1883, an 
able and comprehensive history of the Third Regiment, where its honor- 
able record is to be found fully set forth. The book has been for many 
years out of print, and it is now exceedingly hard to procure a copy. 

As time goes on and the gallant veterans of the war bow to its un- 
ceasing march and sufler the effects of age and infirmities we are i-eminded 
that those who lived in the time of the Civil War will soon have all 
passed away, and succeeding generations must depend upon books, words 
and monuments for information in regard to the events of that time. 
It is therefore important that such records should be correct and complete. 
Army, division, brigade and regimental histories have been written by 
the hundred; the time has now come for the writing of company histories, 
that the services rendered by the gallant men who took part in the Civil 
War should be more fully set forth, and that the individual men should, in 
this way, be kept in the memory by their friends and neighbors and those 
who come after them. 

The time has come, in my opinion, when the sons and grandsons of 
the Veterans of the Civil War should begin to organize societies in every 
city, town and village, as representatives of the various companies who 
served in the war. 

The remembrance of the splendid services rendered by the soldiers of 
that time should not be allowed to fade away. 

A society such as I have mentioned even if not but two or three 
times a year could be the neighborhood repository for all information, 
records and relics concerning the command from that place, the members 
having a special personal interest in keeping alive the memory of those 
near and dear to them. This younger element should each year at least 
give some sort of entertainment to the veterans when stories of the war 
should be recited and songs of the war sung. 

Lectures should be given occasionally by those competent to speak, 
giving accounts of the various episodes of the Civil War, that the younger 
generation may not be left in ignorance of the weighty events of that 
crucial period. 

I regret to say that among the younger people ignorance on that subject 
prevails to an unfortunate degree. 

The veterans of the war at their meetings and re-unions and at other 
times, among themselves, speak very freely of the events of the war, 
but outside of those occasions, I have noticed that they are extremely 
reticent in regard thereto. I fear that they are indeed too much so, but 
nevertheless, admire the spirit of manly reserve, which sensi- 
tively shrinks from making claims for appreciation and sym- 
pathy not only from strangers, but from those also who are 
relatives and friends, who are at times careless perhaps, but I am sure 
never deliberately indifferent to the great services rendered by the soldiers 
of the Civil War. Veterans of the Third Regiment you were never in 

40 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

doubt as to the one great basic pfinciple for wilich you fought — "National 
Sovereignity," a principle that by your efforts and saci'ifices has been 
thoroughly and finally established as the fundamental law of the nation. 

For without that principle no nation can permanently endure. 

National sovereignity does not mean that the just and lawful rights of 
the States should be curtailed and interfered with, and the results of the 
war have been, the practical decision by the trial of arms, of the limitations 
of Federal jurisdiction, and the firm establishmei't without dispute, of 
the reserved power of the several states of the Union. 

In fact that question has been settled so far as anything may be called 
settled in this changeable world in which we live. 

I am sure that there is not a veteran present who has the slightest 
feeling of animosity towards the South or its people. On the contrary, 
I am equally sure that every person here wishes that part of the country 
to enjoy to the fullest extent all the rights of American citizenship, as 
well as the privileges of the several states. 

It is our hope that every Southern state may flourish and prosper, and 
that the great and wonderful resources of that region may be fully de- 
veloped as time goes on, to the advantage and enriching of the people 
resident there. When not engaged in actual combat the soldiers of the 
North and the South were always friendly to each other, and it is to 
the influence of that friendly spirit, we must look for the healing of the 
wounds of the war and an entire restoration of the spirit of unity among 
the people that the progress and prosperity of ,this great nation may 
not be delayed or impaired. 

I remember that I am to be followed on this occasion by remarks from 
a man who was present at the battle of Antietam. General Benjamin 
Franklin Fisher, formerly an officer of Company H of your regiment, was, 
at an early period, detached from your command to take charge of the 
Signal Service of the army. In that important department his success was 
so great that he became a Colonel and Chief Signal officer of the United 
States army, returning with the high rank of Brigadier General, and win- 
ning additional renown and distinction subsequently, in civil life, in his 
profession of the lav/. It is indeed a gratification to his comrades of 
the Third Regiment to have the privilege of hearing him, for they not only 
know his eloquence as an orator, and his splendid qualities as a soldier and 
a gentleman, but they also feel that although he was detached from the 
regiment for other service, he neA'er lost interest in his comrades, and 
that the proud record of the regiment is as dear to him as to those who 
remained with it during the entire time of its service in the field. Among 
my hearers there are many who were actually present on this field on 
the niemorable day of Antietam, and who then stood on this very ground 
in the heart of that great battle. Few of those present have been here 
since then, until now they come to this somewhat remote spot to once more 
stand shoulder to shoulder with their comrades of that famous engage- 
ment, when they won undying glory for their country and their state, 
n^id to recall the memory of others who met their fate here on that 
eventful day. We come to render homage to the living and to the dead. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 41 

To those who fell here, aud who were buried ou the field, we can de- 
liver no message, unless it is given to the departed to overlook aud be 
present in spirit in the places where occurred the most soul stirring and 
exciting incidents of their life. Nor to those who took an honorable 
part here ou tliat day and who have since been called to the life beyond 
the grave can we give any greeting which we are sure will reach them 
in their silent aud louely resting places in distant parts of the country. 

To the dead we can only render respect aud remembrance, can only bow 
the head in sorrow for their mournful fate and appreciation of the supreme 
sacrifice they were called upon to make. 

To the survivors of the War, many of whom, happily, are with us now, 
we live the knowledge of extending our heartfelt congratulations on the 
very event for which we are here assembled, to do honor to their deeds of 
heroism and patriotic duty on this battlefield, in remembrance of which 
their grateful state has caused to be erected this beautiful and appro- 
priate monument in token of her high estimation of their splendid and 
elUcieut service, not only here, but ou every field of action during the 
great war. 

The courage, spirit and endurance exhibited by the Pennsylvania Re- 
serves at Antietam call for the admiration of all. After the reverses 
which they had just sustained in the Virginia campaigns, they forced 
the victorious confederates with the same undaunted spirit, which was their 
characteristic trait during all their military experience. Defeat could not 
tame their lofty courage. Hai'dship and suifering could not subdue their 
immense vitality. 

Whoever was in conunand found the men the same, ready to go where- 
ever they were led or sent, in the tine of duty, even though they knew it 
was the way to defeat and death. Taken from comfortable and in many 
cases harmonious homes, from the peaceful and profitable avocations of 
ordinary life, from the elevating and refining influences of home and society, 
they were not only brought face to face with the danger of death, captivity 
and permanent disablement from wounds or illness, but were also ex- 
posed to the various temptations of camp life and of rough aud sometimes 
evil associates. 

Some of them mere boys, just entering manhood, without practical know- 
ledge or experience of life, they were suddenly called upon to face the 
greatest dangers, trials and hardships, and to witness and participate in 
all the horrors of the battlefield and of cruel and severe captivity in 
the hands of the enemy. Death in its most hideous forms, was con- 
stantly before them. 

In addition to all these hardships and dangers, it must ever be born 
in mind, that these young men, serving the country for an insignificant 
compensation, even if they were fortunate enough to escape wounds, death, 
and captivity, had placed on the altar of service to their country, three 
of what are considered among the best years of a man's life, when 
full of strengtii and vigor, as these men were, he is laying the foundations 
of his future career, and enjoying the plea-sures and privileges so dear 
to the human heart. And now the time has come to say farewell. We can 
never hope to meet again. It has been a great privilege to be here to- 
day. The ceremonies have been worthy of the occasion. 

42 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

Let us be confident, my dear friends that this splendid monument to 
commeraorale tlie services of every man of the Third Regiment has been 
freely, willingly, cheerfully and joyously erected by the people of Penn- 
sylvania, in the same patriotic appreciative and sympathetic spirit, which 
has at all times been manifested by our Commonwealth towards those who 
served her so Avell on the field of war. 

It shows that the people remember, with uudimmed recollection and 
continued appreciation and approval the undaunted courage and noble self- 
sacrifice of the brave citizens of Tennsylvania, summoned to the defense 
of their country, so many years ago. 

I am sure that I may speak with confidence on behalf of the soldiers 
of the Third Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps and say 
to the respected authorities of the Commonwealth, that the officers and 
men of the rcgin\ent are grateful to Pennsylvania for her never failing 
remembrance of her soldiers who fought for her defence and for the 
preservation of the National Union and the Constitution in the Civil War, 
and particularly for this noble, and costly monument erected in their honor 
on this beautiful field, the scene of one of the most memorable struggles 
in the history of America. 

In conclusion I will give you a short sketch of the Regiment's history. 

The Third Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, otherwise 
known as the Thirty-second Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry of the Line, 
was formed, with other regiments, at Easton, Pa., on June 20th, 1861, 
from a number of companies from various parts of the state, rendezvoused 
at that place for the purpose of organization with regiments. 

The command consisted of the following companies: 
Companies A, D, and F, from Reading and other parts of Berks 


Company B, from Wayne county. 
Company C, from Newtown, Bucks county. 
Company H, from Applebaehville, Bucks county. 
Company I, from Bristol, Bucks county. 
Company E, from Holmesburg, Philadelphia. 
Company G, from Germantown, Philadelphia. 
Company K, from Philadelphia. 

On the same day the following named field officers were unanimously 
elected by the officers of the regiment: Colonel, Horatio G. Sickel, Captam 
Co. K; Lieutenant-Col. William S. Thomson, Captain Co. I; Major Richard 
H Woolworth, Captain Co. C. The following regimental officers were ap- 
pointed: Adjutant, Albert H. Jameson, Lieutenant Co. F.; Quartermaster, 
Franklin S. Bickley, Lieutenant Co. D; Chaplain. Rev. William H. Leake, 
Wayne county; Surgeon, Dr. James Collins, Philadelphia; Assistant Sur- 
geon, Dr. George L. Pancoast, Philadelphia. On the day of the battle of 
Bull' Run, July 21, 1S61, the regiment was ordered to Washington, and 
left Easton on July 22, reaching Washington on the evening of July 24, 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 43 

numbering 972 officers aud men, fully armed and equipped, and well drilled 
with a full band of music. They were quartered in a manufacturing estab- 
lishment while at Washington, and soon after their arrival they were 
mustered in one of the public squares and inspected by President Abraham 
Lincoln, who walked through the ranks of each company. The President 
subsequently addressed the men in a few words of welcome and appre- 

In a few days they left the city and were stationed at Camp McCall, 
situated in the counti-y outside of Washington. 

On August 1, 1861, the regiment marched through Washington and 
Georgetown to Tenallytown, about six miles northwest of the capital, 
where they pitched their tents in camp with a number of the other regi- 
ments of the division, under command of General George A. McCall, who 
had been appointed by Governor Curtin as major general of the division. 

General McCall was a native of the city of Philadelphia and a graduate 
of the United States Military Academy at West Point. He had served in 
the Florida War as a captain in the 4th TJ. S. Infantry. 

lie also distinguished himself in the war with Mexico and was colonel 
of the 3d Regiment, U. S. Infantry. He subsequently held the position of 
Inspector General of the United States Army. It was largely owing to the 
indefatig;able efforts of this experienced, able and distinguished 
officer, that the division secured that preliminary training in 
the duties of military life which prepared them for their 
future arduous and successful service in the field. On August 21st, 
1861, the division was reviewed by President Abraham Lincoln and 
Major General George B. McClellan, Commander-in-Chief of the Armies 
of the United States. Mr. Lincoln's cabinet were present. On the fol- 
lowing day an address from General McCall was read at the head of 
each regiment, in which he stated, referring to President Lincoln aud 
General McClellan: 

"Both the General and the President have expressed to me 
their imqualified approval of your soldier-like appearance on 
review, and of the discipline thus manifestly shown to exist 
in the corps." 

On September 10, 1861, Governor Andrew G. Curtin, on behalf of the 
Society of the Cincinnati, of Pennsylvania, presented the division with 
regimental flags, in the presence of President Lincoln, Secretary of War 
Cameron, and Generals McClellan, Thomas, Butler and Mansfield. 

The flags were received for the division by Major General ^IcCall, who 
responded to Governor Curtin's address. 

On September 16, 1861, the men of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps were 
organized into three brigades. The Third Regiment was assigned to the 
Second Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General George Gordon Meade, 
who was subsequently the victorious commander of the Army of the Poto- 
mac at the battle of Gettysburg. 

On October 9, 1861, the division crossed the Potomac River on the Chain 
Bridge into Virginia and took up a position at Camp Pierpont, on the 

44 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

extreme riglit of the Army of tlie Potomac. A part of the division was 
engaged in an action at Drainesville, Virginia, on December 20, 1861. 

The Third Regiment was not called npon to take part, but were drawn 
up in line prepared to do so. The first action in which the regiment came 
into actual contact with the enemy was the battle of Mechanicsville, Vir- 
ginia, in which three men were wounded and two made prisoners. This 
occurred on June 26, 18G2. 

On March 10, 1862, the division had left Camp Pierpont and were 
encamped at Alexandria, Virginia, on April 16. 

On July 1, 1862, the regiment was in reserve, supporting the batteries 
at the battle of Malvern Hill. 

On July 27, 1862, they were hotly engaged at Gaines Mill, and at the 
close of the action were most heartily congratulated by Samuel Meade upon 
their "cool valor." 

Omitting the various skirmishes when no casualties occurred, the fol- 
lowing is a list of the engagements in which the regiment took part, and 
the losses sustained. 












June 26, 1S62. Mechanicsville. Va •• 

June 27, 1862. Gaines' Mill. Va |^ 

June 30, 1863, Glendale, Va ^J 

August 28, 29, 30. 1S62. Manassas. Va , Jl 

September 16, 17, 1862, Antietam. Md : ii 

December 13, 1S62. Fredericksburg, Va., : ^ 

May 9, 1S64, Cloyd Mountain, Va 

May 10, 1864, New River Bridge, Va. , ^ 

Total, i ^* 














The regiment returned to Philadelphia by way of Pittsburgh and re- 
ceived a hearty greeting as they passed through the State, and on their 
arrival in Philadelphia on June 8, 1864. 

They were mustered out of the service on June 17, 1864. 
Although the losses sustained by the regiment at Antietam were not 
so great as in some of the other important actions, it was, perhaps, the 
case that in this battle the men were actually personally closer to the enemy 
and iudividuallv engaged to a greater extent than in any other. 

Both sides felt that it was a critical time in the progress of the war 
and the individual men of the armies were quick to see that momentous 
issues depended on the results. 

The men felt deeply the personal responsibility which rested upon them, 
individually, and which nerved each man to do his very best to secure 
a victory. Therefore extreme efforts were put forth both in attack and 
resistenoe, and the extremely heavy general losses occurred from actual 
personal encounters and the unprecedentedly numerous casualties to both 
armies, occurred in comparatively brief periods of time. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 45 

The first contact of the Third Kesinient with the euemy was iu the 
preliminary action at South Mountain, Md., on September 14, 1862, when 
the command occupied an eminence on the right flank, and subsequently 
supported Ransom's Battery which occupied a prominent and exposed posi- 
tion. Here tliey remained until the close of the battle. Ammunition was 
supplied during the night and at noon on September 15, the regiment left 
the mountains and moved off on the National Road towards Antietam, 
marching with Ransom's Battery, to Keedysville, and on the morning of 
September IG, rejoined the diviskin, resting on the right of the Keedysville 
and Williamsport Road. A light breakfast of coffee and crackers was pro- 
vided at this point. 

About three o'clock on the afternoon of September IG, the division ad- 
vanced along the Williamsport road for about a mile and then made a 
sharp turn to the left into the open fields, which were surrounded with 
woods on three sides. The command soon came into contact with bodies 
of the enemy's troops who they drove out of the first woods across the 
fields into another woods beyond. In a cornfield in their front the enemy 
had planted a battery, supported by masses of infantry from whence 
came a heavy fire replied to with vigor by Ransom's Battery, whose fire 
compelled the Confederates to seek the shelter of the woods. The contest 
closed at dark, although the artillery fire was slowly kept up until ten 
o'clock at night. 

Both sides slept upon the field not far apart. During the night the 
enemy made two attacks upon the pickets, both of Avhich were repulsed. 

At three o'clock on the morning of September 17, 1862, the pickets 
of the Third Regiment opened fire and the whole command was soon 
engaged, thus opening the second day's fight of the great battle of Antietam. 

Meade with the Reserves drove the enemy back through the woods, 
until the Confederates were heavily reinforced, and advanced in such 
numbers as to compel the Reserves to move back about five hundred yards, 
when the lines were re-formed. 

The regiment was engaged from daybreak until ten o'clock in the morning 
when the enemy were driven back with great slaughter. 

They had been desparately fighting during nearly all of that time, had 
been for 22 hours without food, and had been able to obtain but little 
sleep the night before. 

At this time in the morning they had exhausted their ammunition by 
continuous firing, and they were replaced in the line by fresh troops and 
ordered to the rear for rest and refreshment. 

As cooly and steadily as if on parade they marched across the blood 
stained corn-field into the first strip of woods and rested there, waiting 
to assist, if necessary, in repulsing an assault on the right, but were not 
needed. They then took a position on a ridge beyond the woods, and 
were provided with food and ammunition. 

At 2 o'clock P. M., the whole Pennsylvania Reserve Division rested on 
this ridge ready to move to in any direction required. 

The battle concluded, however, without tl^eir being again ordered to 
take part, 

46 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

General McClellau reports his losses as amountiug to 2,000 killed, 9,416 
wounded, 1,043 missing, making a total loss of 12,469. From the reports 
of the Confederate Corps and Division Commanders we learn that their loss 

1,842 killed, 9,399 wounded and 2,292 prisoners, making a total loss on 
their side of 13,533. 

General Meade's report shows that the division of Pennsylvania Re- 
serves which went into action numbering 3,000 men, lost in killed and 
wounded over 570 men, nearly one fifth of their number. 

The foregoing account of the battle is a part of the description con- 
tained in the "History of the Third Pennsylvania Reserve," by the late 
Major E. M. Woodward of the 2d Regiment, P. R. V. C, published in 

THE CHAIRMAN: Within our ranks serving from its or- 
ganization until the final muster out of our Regiment was an 
officer whom we all highly respect and esteem, and whom 
every member of the old Third remembers as an honorable, 
brave and gallant soldier who, loyal to his Regiment and its 
associations, refused promotion to high rank when it was ten- 
dered him as it would sunder his relations with the Regiment 
of whose achievement he was so proud, until its term of ser- 
vice had expired. I can say that it is with sincere and heart- 
felt pleasure I introduce to you General Benj. F. Fisher, Chief 
Signal Officer, U. S. A., during the war. 

General B. F. Fisher, Captain of Co. H, 3rd Reserves and 
former Chief Signal Officer U. S. Army in answer to a call 
spoke substantially as follows: 


Comrades and Survivors of the Third Pennsylvania Reserves: It affords 
me great pleasure in answer to your most cordial call to greet you, upon 
this memorable occasion, gathered as we are to dedicate this monument, 
erected through the liberality of our State in commemoration of your deeds 
and the deeds of those of our Regiment who gave their lives upon this 
field forty-four years ago, in one of the most terrific battles of the war 
waged for the preservation of the very life of the Government. It gives 
me great pleasure in the fact that I was a member of your gallant regi- 
ment at its organization, and I recall my great regret at the time when 
I was taken from you at the old camp at Tennallytown and assigned to 
other duties. However, my heart was ever with my comrades of the 


Of the 3rd Regiment who delivered an address at the Dedication 

of the monument. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 47 

old Third Reserves. I never lost sight of your movemeuts, your eudur- 
ance in the long marches and campaigns made during the three years of 
your service, your indomitable courage and gallantry in the many battles 
fn which you took part were as familiar to me as though I marched 
with you and touched elbow with you. In fact I was often in your vicinity 
and witnessed your unswerving devotion to duty, and dauntless courage 
upon the field of battle. I may be permitted to state to you my surviv- 
ing comrades, though other duties took me from your immediate com- 
panionship, assured as I was that it was the wish of my friends in 
the Regiment that I should not sever my connection with the regiment 
during its term of service, though 1 carried in my pocket the appointment 
to higher place, and by virtue of my being able to issue orders by order 
of the commanding genei-al of the Army of the Potomac, directed and con- 
trolled these higher duties, nevertheless j'ou will find my name recorded 
as being mustered out as Captain of Company H, in the summer of 1864. 
While in point of fact 1 remained as the chief signal officer of the Army 
of the Potomac, and feel that I I'eflected no discredit upon my old com- 
rades of the Third Reserves as promotion followed until I was honored 
by the appointment before the war closed as Chief Signal Officer of the 
Army of the United States. In making this personal statement I am 
actuated wholly by the desire to assure you that while I was separated 
from you at all times remained true to the comradeship made in June, 
1861. Proud we were, and our descendants to remotest age can take 
pride in the fact, that we were members of the glorious Division of Penn- 
sylvania Reserves. We will not seek in the slightest degree to under- 
rate the patriotism and gallant services of the other Pennsylvania Regi- 
ments in the war, but by reason of the time and circumstances of its 
organization, standing ready to meet the foreseen emergency of the Na- 
tional Government, by reason of its name Pennsylvania Reserves the honor 
and loyalty of our beloved State seemed to be specially imposed upon the 
old Division. Thank God it ever proved true to the highest degree in both 
honor and loyalty to the State and to the Government. Assigned by that 
loyal and great Pennsylvanian, General Geo. B. McClellan, in the organiza- 
tion of the Army of the Potomac to the place of the Division upon the 
right of that great army it sustained the first shock of battle of that army 
at Drainsville. Again at Mechanicsville or Meadow Bridge it met the 
advance of the attacking army in that series of battles known as the 
Seven Days fight, on front of Richmond. Alone in the first day holding in 
check more than three times its numbers under Longstreet and Jackson. 
Reinforced by Peters' Corp. on the second day fought the terrific battle 
of Gaines Mill. Thirty thousand against seventy thousand of the flower 
of Lee's army. Withdrawing from both fields with the several organiza- 
tions unbroken, thus sliowing the perfect discipline, coolness and undaunted 
courage of the old division. Why you could hear on all sides, when 
the order came to withdraw from Mechanicsville to Gaines Mill the 
murmuring of the men protesting that they had repulsed the enemy and 
could hold their own. They knew not that thirty thousand of the enemy 
were passing their right. But the losses in killed and wounded in these 
two battles, and the terrific strain of fighting during the day and march- 

4^3 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

ing by night, had more or less exhausted the division. And unexpectedly 
struck upon the flank at Charles City Cross Roads they sustained a partial 
disaster However, rest and reorganization brought the old division to 
its normal condition with an experience that enabled it to do and accom- 
plish at South Mountain and upon this field the glorious result so graphically 
related to you by your orators of the day. Here, as subsequently upon the 
-reat battlefield of Gettysburg, the enemy under General Lee, after a long 
series of great successes preceding, believing themselves invincible, were 
confronted by the Army of the Potomac, defeated and compelled to return 
across the Potomac River. Then -followed Fredericksburg, in which battle 
the only redeeming feature was accomplished by your division. In this 
battle was wanting the master hand of McClellan-holding his army so 
in hand that the success or needs of any portion could be promptly sup- 
ported and maintained. What a different result could have been ex- 
pected if the divisions massed in the streets of Fredericksburg could have 
supported you as you moved up the hills virtually by the right of General 
Lee's army on Marie Heights. But unsupported and with more than 
double your force massed against you, forced to retire, you did so with 
the organization presumably unbroken. Through the balance of your 
service at Chancellorville, Gettysburg, South Western Virginia, Wilder- 
ness Spottsylvania, down to Cold Harbor. Though depleted in numbers 
the old division could be relied upon under all circumstances, and by its 
prowess and gallantry added glory, honor and fame to each and every one 
of its members. 

The Chairman then introduced Mrs. Amanda Dauth, of 
Reading, Pa., as a woman foremost in good works for the ad- 
vaneem^Jnt of the interest of the comrades of the Civil War, 
as well as those of the Widows and Orphans whose protectors 
have passed to the ''great beyond." 

Mrs. Dauth gracefully unveiled the monument which had 
been entirely draped bv an immense United States flag, at the 
same time the Keedysville Band played "The Star Spangled 
Banner." Owen Jones, Co. K, 3rd Regiment, standmg at the 
base of the monument, holding a beautiful silk flag with a 
white field and a blue corps mark, a fac simile of the battle 
flag carried in advance of the Reserves in all its camp-aigns in 

The Chairman said: ''We have with us today one of our 
friends whose zeal and interest in the welfare of the survivors 
of the Civil War, as well as in that of the Widows and Or- 
phans of our comrades has never wavered, and who as the 
years pass over becomes more and more earnest in the cause, 

"Who unveiled the monument of the 3rd Regiment. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 49 

aud it is a source of gratification to me to introduce to you 
Mrs. Mary E. Jones, of PhiladelpMa." 

Mrs. M. E. Jones placed a magnificent tioral tribute at the 
base of the monument saying: "I place these flowers here in 
memory of the brave men of the 3rd Regiment, V. R. V. C, 
who gave up thefr lives on this sanguinary field in defence 
of their country and its flag that they might live forever." 
These eloquent and heartfelt words appealed to all hearts and 
ended the ceremony at the monument. 

After the conclusion of the dedication of the 4th Regiment 
P. R. V. C. monument, Mr. Alex. F. Nicholas, secretary of the 
commission, was introduced by H. Synnamon to those of the 
comrades who remained in the vicinity of the Third Regiment 
monument, and made an appeal for the purchase of ground 
in the rear of the monuments so that suitable surroundings 
might be given to the beautiful and enduring souv- 
enirs of our services in the field, and that the 
approach to them and the view might not be encroached upon. 


The subject chosen for the 7 ft. granite Statue Memorial for the Third 
Pennsylvania Reperves, is a beautiful Statue called "Victory." The par- 
ticular pose shown in this Statue is of the youthful Union Soldier at the 
moment of victory, at the end of a hard fought battle, at the moment 
when the foe is seen to waver and finally retreat. 

The young soldier is wounded in the head, but has pluckily bound up his 
wound, and continued to fight with his comrades, and at the moment of 
victory, mounts the earthworks, and swinging his cap in hand, joins his 
comrades in shouting "Victory," because the day is won. 

This Statue shows spirit and soldierly bearing in every one of its 
details. The victory is won, and his wound is forgotten, and his service 
has been heroic and honorable. This subject of "Victory" is entirely orig- 
inal, and was executed especially for this work. 

The material from which this Statue is cut is of the best selected 
Westerly, R. I., granite. The pedestal is of the finest Barre, Vermont, 
granite, and is composed of four stones; two base, and die stone and cap. 

50 Pennsylvania at Antictam. 

The two lower bases, the hirgest of which is 7 feet square, is of rough 
quarry faced surfaces, with hammered margins and w^ashes. The total 
height of this pedestal is 9 ft. The die, or tablet stone, with overhanging 
cap forming the plinth for the Statue, is of the finest hammered Barre 
granite; the whole making a very appropriate, pleasing and well propor- 
tioned Regimental Memorial. 

A bronze Tablet, with full inscription in raised letters is fastened into a 
sunk panel on the front face of the die stone, while the State Coat of 
Arms may be seen in bronze on the front face of the second base of 
this Monument. 

The inscriptions are as follows: 





Arriving on the field on the afternoon of September IGth, Lieut. Col. 
John Clai'k, Commanding the Regiment, immediately deployed eight com- 
panies as skirmishers. 

When the 2nd Brigade advanced on the morning of September 17th, the 
Regiment fell into line, and GOO yards south of this point became en- 
gaged with Hood's Confederate Division. 

Ntr.nber engaged, about 200. 



Total 46 











Third Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry, Mansfield Avenue, Antietam 


Pennsylvania at AntieUun. 51 


COMRADE JOHN N. REBER called the Viiterans who 
were assembled around the monimieut of the Fourth 
Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps to order and 
said: *'It will be necessary first to select somebody to pre- 
side and announce the speakers, and to make any other an- 
nouncements that are to be made." 

Comrade John N. Reber be made Chairman at the unveiling 
of the monument of the Fourth Regiment. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

COMRADE REBER: We would like to have your attention 
and will ask you to keep as quiet as possible while Comrade 
William H. H. Ogden, of Philadelphia, will invoke the blessing 
on this gathering. 


Our Heavenly Father, upon this august occasion that brings us together 
this morning, we thank Thee in our hearts, that it is naught but duty* 
that we should look unto Thee with thankfulness for Thy loving-kindness 
and for Thy tender mercies unto so many of us during the years that 
have passed since the great conflict that occurred upon these grounds. 
We do thank Thee this morning that so many of us have been privileged 
to meet here today upon this occasion where we may do honor to those 
that fell in the holy cause of sustenance to our great Republic, and the 
maintaining of the flag in honor and glory. We beseech Thee, oh God, 
that Thou wouldst bless the proceedings today, and grant. Father, that 
this memorial that is erected here upon this place to commemorate the 
events that occurred may stand unto many future generations, teaching 
those that follow in our lives of the devotion that we had toward the 
flag, and our earnestness in sustaining the great government of the 
United States. Let Thy blessing, we beseech Thee, rest upon each in- 
dividual, and may Thy blessing rest upon all, individually and collectively, 
granting to all that we may at last meet around the Throne in the 
presence of the Great Commander of the Armies of Israel. 

These mercies we ask through Christ, our Redeemer. Amen. 

52 Pennsylvania at Antictam. 

COMRADE REBER: It affords me great pleasure to intro- 
duce to you Comrade Frederick Markoe of Company I, of the 
Fourth Pennsylvania Reserves, who will deliver the address. 


Comrades, Ladies and Friends: We meet here today upon this hallowed 
ground after a period of Forty-four years to dedicate this Monument. 
Dedicate it to the memory of the dead and the living. A gift from the 
State of Pennsylvania in remembrance of the duty you performed to your 

As you have done me the honor of representing you on this memorable 
occasion I thank yon and regret that my effort will fall short of ex- 
pressing my feeling. 

The 4th Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Corps march from near Keedy- 
ville, on the Williamsport road, on the 16th of September, 1862. When 
near the Williamsport and Sharpsburg turnpike the enemy was discovered 
to our left. The regiment was ordered forward, marching in column of 
division until we arrived at the woods directly in our front. 

We were then dejiloyed in line under cover of the wood. We lay here 
under arms during the night, a number of men were put out a few feet 
in front of the Regiment acting as pickets. The least noise made one could 

I have often thought I would like to know the actual distance that night, 
as it seemed but a few yards if one were to judge by an occasional sound 
and then it seemed to be as if it were muffled. Our orders were not 
■ to make the least sound of a noise and I presume the enemy had received 
similar orders. The very silence itself was something beyond the power 
of the human mind to picture that night's condition. It is here where 
the Battle of Antietam began on the 17th of September, 1862, forty- 
four years ago today. 

As the day began to dawn in the Heavens we were marched in column 
of division and then deployed and marched by the left flank under a very 
destructive fire. The regiment halted for an instant it seemed as if a 
mighty sheet of fire had shot out of the earth. The command came at 
once, forward and steadily comrades, forward you went, the enemy 
receding foot by foot. This was the condition when you were relieved by 
Summers' Corp. 

It is said, and truly said, that among those only who can gain 
fame which is enduring are the Great Victors in War. If this be true 
Pennsylvania will lay many claims for distinctive remembrance in the 
development of the Republic; but there is no one's service that will stand 
out more brilliant in the future than she should have sent out and 
supported with the Pennsylvania Reserve that great commander General 

Private Company I, 4th Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Corps. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 53 

George B, McClellan, who won the crucial Battle of the Republic, "An- 

What Governor Curtin did in organizing the Volunteer Army of the 
Union is well known. At the beginning of the conflict Governor Curtin 
did not M'ait for the Legislature, but issued at once a call for 25,000 emer- 
gency men. He assembled more men at Harrisburg than the general 
government could use, and was advised by them to disband a part of 
them; but the Governor of the great state of Pennsylvania understood 
the situation better than the authorities at Washington. Governor Curtin 
asked and received the authority from the Legislature of the State to 
organize the famous Pennsylvania Reserves of 13 regiments, made up 
of picked men from all parts of the State, under ablest and best trained 
officers available. The Reserves never failed to sustain the highest reputa- 
tion for courage and efficiency in every desperate conflict waged by the 
Array of the Potomac. It was called for by the Government immediately 
after the disaster of the First Bull Run, and through the Governor the 
Reserves were sent forward without delay, much to avert a panic at the 
Capitol. The Pennsylvania Reserves were the only State organization in 
the history of the War that went into the United States Service as a 
complete Division, and it lost more men than any other like number 
serving during the three strenuous years beginning with McClellan's first 
Richmond Campaign. It was upon the basis of the Pennsylvania Re- 
serve that McClellan largely modelled the Army of the Potomac, whose 
essential form did not change through the War. Of the three commanders 
of the Reserves General Meade afterwards commanded the Army 
of the Potomac; General Ord commanded the Army of the James; 
General Reynolds fell at Gettysburg, commanded the left wing of Meade's 

Comrades of the 4th Regiment Pennsylvania Reserves it will be im- 
possible to give bat a brief review of your glorious history of the three 
years of courageous duty in your country's cause, from your encampment 
at Easton on July 21st, 1861, you were ordered to break camp and march 
to Camp Curtin in Harrisburg. We remained in Harrisburg only a 
short time when we Avere again given orders to break camp and start 
for Baltimore, where you arrived July 22nd. On August 22nd, 1801, we 
broke camp at Baltimore, leaving Camp Carol for Washington. On your 
march through Washington to Tennallytown you were halted in front of 
the White House midnight. 

President Lincoln arose from his bed and addressed you in the following 
language. "Sons of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Reserves, I thank God 
you are here tonight and I thank the Governor of Pennsylvania you are 
here tonight. I thank Governor Curtin for your splendid organization. 
In being here tonight at this critical time to save tlie Capitol of the 
Nation from the enemy." 

Broke camp on the 9th of October, crossing the chain bridge into Vir- 
ginia. Encamped in line with the Army of the Potomac, holding the right 
of the line near Langley. joined in the forward movement of the Army 
toward Manasses, from here to Manassas in march we proceeded to Hun- 
ter's Mills. Here we halted, having been informed the enemy had re- 

54 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

tiredC Now being part of the first Army Corps we were ordered to 
Fredericksburg. It was understood that we were to march by way of 
the Richmoud and Potomac Railroad. The First Brigade had already 
crossed the Rappahannock when the order was countermanded and we 
were detached from McDowell's Corps and sent by way of the Pamunky 
River to the White House to form a junction with McClellan's Army at 
Mechanicsviile on the Peninsula. 

On the 25th day of June the Reserves fought the Battle of Mechanics- 
ville. The 4th Regiment was not actively engaged, but was imder fire 
during the engagement. During the night we marched from Mechanics- 
ville to Gaines' Mill, arrived in time to form in line of battle through the 
woods in our front, drove the enemy from it into open space. As we 
crossed the opening Duryea's Zouaves of New York were being pressed 
hard. Generals McCall and Meade came into the opening at this time 
and ordered that we fall back under cover of the woods from which we 
had just advanced, — the New York Regiment following. When we got to 
the woods we were ordered out and formed our line. 

It was discovered at this point that General Jackson had turned our 
left flank. Looking over to the left there could be seen a large column 
of troops marching towards us. The officers knew the condition very 
well, as the orders given indicated we were falling back in good order 
until we had gotten well across the field, when it could be seen that the 
enemy had worked around in our rear. This made our position very 
critical. It is said by a number of writers that it was a miracle that 
the entire division was not taken prisoners. 

Crossing the Chickahominy Swamp at night after the Corduroy Road 
had been torn up we had to cross upon the logs that laid in the swamp. 
At noon the following day the march was taken up to Charles City Cross 
Roads, where we arrived at night, passing the enemy's picket on the 
road. When taken off the road into the woods on our left an order 
was passed along the line that not a word was to be spoken as the 
enemy was passing only a few feet in our front. Just before the break 
of day we were marched back at about 2.30 P. M. Whilst we were being 
mustered for pay the firing began before the muster was over. The regi- 
ment was in lino of battle. The regiment was in the front line on the 
right, laying between the gnus and caissons of Randall's Battery. 

The enemy seemed to have concentrated their main force at this point. 
The battery was taken and re-taken a number of times during the after- 
noon. I can better illustrate the fierceness of the struggle of the day 
if I quote from the official report of General McCall, the commander of 
the Pennsylvania Reserves. He says: "The most determined charge of 
the day was made upon Randall's Battery by a full brigade advancing in 
wedge shape without orders but with a wild recklessness that I never 
saw equalled. It was my fortune to witness here one of the fiercest 
bayonet charges that ever occurred on this continent. Bayonets were 
crossed and locked in the struggle. Bayonet wounds were freely given and 
received. I saw skulls crushed by the heavy blows of the butts of the 
muskets, aild in short the desperate thrusts and parries of a life and 
death encounter proving indeed that Greek had met Greek when the 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 55 

Alabama boys fell upon the sons of Pennsylvania. The enemy was suc- 
cessfully held in check and the Army of the Potomac had free access 
to Cliarlt's City Cross Koads. In its retreat to Malvern Hill and Harrison 
Landing during the night we retired to Malvern Hill where we were held in 
reserve and were not called into action. Our losses in the Seven Days 
Battle, from Mechanicsville to Malvern Hill, were three hundred killed, 
wounded and missuig. At Harrison's Landing the Reserve Division were 
personally addressed by the commanding general of the army, George B. 
McClellan, and thanked for the good work performed. With a feeling so 
strong that he could scarcely speak, he said: "Sons of Pennsylvania, I 
thank you for your heroic work, and I am proud that I am a Pennsyl- 
vanian. You saved the day at Charles City Cross Koads by holding the 
enemy in ch<.'ck, permitting the Army of the Potomac to reach its destina- 

Leaving Harrison's Landing the order came to support General Pope's 
army on the Kapidan, in the Shenandoah Valley. It was here at War- 
rington that McCall resigned command of the Pennsylvania Reserve Divi- 
sion, in the shadow of that summons which all must answer. He 
lived but a short time after leaving the service. He was a heroic soldier, 
a refined gentleman, and one of God's noblest characters. 

General John ¥. Reynolds assumed command of the Reserve Division, 
under whom we marched to the plain of Manassas, engaged in the second 
battle of Bull Run, the 29th and 30th of August, held possession in the 
centre of the line, being attacked with overwhelming numbers on our 
left, tlie line fell back. The result was the Reserves had to fall back 
to be in line with the main body. We Avere not given any support in 
the two day's manoeuvring, taken from the centre sent the right of the 
line, then to the extreme left and then to the centre again, a continuous 
back and forth movement covered the retreat of Pope's army from Bull 
Run to the defence of Washington. 

From Washington to South Mountain General George G. Meade was 
placed in command of the Division, General Reynolds having been sent 
nito Pennsylvania to organize the militia in the State for home defence. 
At South Mountain Colonel Magilton of the 4th Regiment was placed in 
command of the Second Brigade. Major Nyce placed in command of the 
Regiment, Colonel Woolworth being home wounded. The First Brigade, 
under Seymour, was Ordered along a ravine running parallel to South 
Mountain. The Second Brigade, of which the 4th Regiment was part, 
and the Third Brigade formed in line, being with Seymour but lower 
down in the valley at the foot of the mountain. As we advanced and 
the engagement became general the enemy was found posted behind huge 
boulders which had to be scaled to reach the enemy. Men had to assist 
one another to reach the gap of the ledges. It has often occurred to me 
since that the enemy might have throv/n boulders down the mountain and 
pi-evented our advance over South Mountain. 

Comrades, if a panoramic view could have been taken of the regiment 
scaling the mountains in the face of the enemy it would have made one 
of the grandest pictures in the world. As I have given you an account 

56 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

of Antietam iu my opening address we will follow on to Fredericksburg, 
in which the regiment was actively engaged on December 13th, 1862. 
You held the right of the line of battle and charged the enemy in the 
face of a terrific fire which, you will bear me out, both infantry and artil- 
lery. It was a determined struggle, breaking through the enemy's line, over 
the railroad, up the summit, through the woods, out into the open and 
through their camp. This was at the point of bayonets. Had this ad- 
vantage to our lines been supported and held the battle of Fredericksburg 
would have been one of the glorious achievements of the Army of the 
Potomac. The enemy was re-enforced by an entire corps. 

The result: the line of battle on the right was forced to retire, but not 
until they got into the rear of our right iiank. All advantage gained by 
us here was lost. 

On the 8th of February, 1863, the regiment greatly reduced in numbers 
was ordered to Washington. Quite a number of new recruits were as- 
signed to the regiment. Leaving Washington with the 3rd Reserve Regi- 
ment we began the raid across the state of West Virginia, taking trans- 
portation in Washington at midnight on January 5th, 1864, arrived in 
Martinsburg by the way of the B. and O. Railroad on the morning of 
January 5th. From Washington Junction to Martinsburg it was in a 
hurry. The Gth and 7th of January were two very cold days, the ground 
was hard, and the tents could not be put up. The cold winds and 
the blinding snowstorm made the condition of the men pitiable indeed. 
Upon our arrival at Martinsburg, General Averill just arrived, returning 
from a raid he had made upon a town by the name of Salem, in Roanoke 
county, a very important outpost of the enemy on the Virginia and Tenn- 
essee Railroad. They had destroyed a very large supply of commissary 

Our arrival in Martinsburg was timely, as the enemy followed Averill 
very close. It was thought that he intended to raid the Border county, and 
at the same time make a dash for the B. and O. road. It was fortunate 
at the time that the 3rd and 4th regiments had come to Averill's assist- 
ance; it gave the enemy the impression the entire Reserve Division had 
arrived in Martinsburg. We remained here until January 28th, when we 
were ordered to New Creek, a wild and desolate mountain region, one 
hundred miles west from Martinsburg. A Colonel Mulligan was in com- 
mand here, a miserable forsaken place. As the enemy had retreated we 
were ordered to cross the Potomac and pitch out tents. 

Early on the night of January 31st, in the midst of a severe storm of 
rain, snow and sleet, the regiment was started in pursuit of the enemy, 
who attacked a wagon train of eighty wagons going from New Creek vo 
Petersburg in West Virginia, Hardy county, one of the extreme im- 
portant outposts forty miles from New Creek. We were accompanied by 
a small squad of cavalry. It was march and counter march six days 
and nights over rocky and muddy roads, ankle deep in mud. When off 
the Mountain Roads, all small bridges across the Mountain streams were 
destroyed. They had to be forded. When we came within a few miles of 
Moorefield, formed a junction with Averill, the enemy got away. We re- 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 57 

turned completely exliausted to our camps on the banks of the Potomoc 
where we left our tents standing on the night of January 31st, 1863. 

On February 11th, 18G4, we started over that hundred miles back to 
Martinsburg, where the regiment did picket duty until March 27th, when 
the regiment was ordered to Hai-per's P'erry, where we performed picket 
duty until April 3rd. All of our baggage was here disposed of and 
stored. The Regiment was supplied with two pairs of shoes, eighty rounds 
of ammunition and five days rations, which turned out to be fifteen days 
short. Being relieved of that comfort, the blanket which it was at first 
decided we could have, but later on countermanded, we were started west. 
Arrived at Grafton, two hundred miles from Harpers Ferry, from Graf- 
ton to Webster. Here we again formed a junction with Averill's Cavalry, 
which had gone into camp some distance to the North of us. Here at 
Webster, Avagons, ambulances, pontoon bridges were collected. On the 22ud 
of April we started from Webster to Wheeling. We embarked upon 
steamboats. On our journey down the Ohio River to the great Kanawha 
River to Brownstown, ten miles above Charleston. Here General Crook 
had command of the forces that were collected at this extreme western 
part of West Virginia. I saw a great deal of General Crook at Parkers- 
burg. He seemed to be a very forcible character. I was very much 
impressed with him in the manner he would see to the details in the 
execution of his orders. As you remember. Comrades, at Martinsburg you 
were stripped of everything; but here in Brownstown there was an extra 
search made and the least article one possessed was confiscated. The 
smallest detail was looked into. 

On Saturday morning April 30th, 1864, the 4th regiment began that 
long march up the narrow Kanawha Valley. How well you remember 
the swollen tributaries of the Kanawha. There were no bridges, no pon- 
toon bridges, those that were collected at Parkersburg remained there. It 
was found that a wagon train of Pontoon bridges was out of place in 
this narrow valley, so you were ordered to ford the mountain stream, 
a number of them waist deep. 

On the morning of May 1st, 1864, the regiment marched from Great 
Falls, at the head of the Sauley and New River, which is the tributary 
to the Kanawha River, crossed Cotton Mountain. You remember as you 
ascended, it was a beautiful day. In two hours we were going through the 
clouds, and when we reached the top there was a raging rainstorm, and 
when we descended the mountain into Fayette Valley there was a snow 
storm, a regular blizzard. 

This expedition Avas intended to reach the Tennessee and Virginia Rail- 
roads, which was one of the main arteries that Lee's army depended upon 
for supplies. It was intended we should reach Wytheville and Dublin. 

Reaching Fayette Court House, on to Raleigh, across the great Flat Top 
Mountain, which was set on fire on each side of the road by order of 
General Crook, so as the five thousand cavalry in command of General 
AveriU who were going up tlie valley could see the progress we were 
making over the ranges of mountains. It was a signal. The course we 
were taking in many places the fire would make such headway that by 

58 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

the time a part of the ammunition train got through the others would 
be forced to go a short distance as hard as the teams could go. When 
the enemy discovered what was being done they threw obstacles in our 
way, by cutting trees and leaving them fall across the mountain road. 
There was no turning out and passing them. They had to be removed. 
The fire was a beautiful sight when night came to see the mountain 
sides burning for miles around, and it was very amusing to see the men 
busy extinguishing the fire on the covers of tlie ammunition wagons. 

On the 6th of May our advance came up to the enemy at Princetown, 
the county seat of Mercer county. Here we came upon a number of 
them building trenches. The ground seemed to be staked off for a fort. 
From here there was a two day's forced march and skirmishing on the way 
with a small detachment of the enemy. Crossed East River Mountain and 
through Rocky Gap in Tazewell county, into Walker's Valley, a day's 
march of thirty miles. On the 8th the Gap near Shannon's Bridge was 
gained. This gap opens up to the northwest slope of Walker or Cloyd 

On the morning of the 9th of May, 18G4, we passed through this gap 
up the mountain road, reaching the summit of the mountain. The posi- 
tion of the enemy was distinctly outlined. Their position on a bold 
x'idge situated so as to have the mountain road under the absolute com- 
mand of their artillery, and to make it impossible for infantry to descend 
down the side of the mountain and across the valley to the knoll upon 
which a fort was constructed, a deep trench in front of it. You will re- 
member huge limbs were placed so it was absolutely impossible to reach 
the fort without removing these obstructions in the ditch. As we came 
down the side of Cloyd Mountain and reached its base the order was 
given to charge across the opening in our front. The charge was made 
in the face of a severe infantry and artillery fire. 

The artillery were using grape and canister. It was a brilliant charge 
across the plain, reaching the fort on the knoll under this terrific fire, 
tearing away the obstructions in front into the trench, up its sides into 
the fort, when the enemy broke, retreating out of an opening in the rear. 
There was a running fire kept up across the plains. There were six hun- 
dred prisoners taken. Our loss was one hundred and seven killed, fiv» 
hundred wounded and missing. We lost our commanding ofiicer, Colonel 
Woolworth, who was mortally wounded, died shortly after the battle; 
Captain Davis of Company I, killed in the charge across the plains. At 
the death of Colonel Woolworth, Lieutenant T. F. B. Tapper was placed 
in command of the regiment, and having no transportation facilities our 
wounded were removed to a building close by for the enemy to care for 
them, one of our own physicians remaining with them. The building was 
called the Cloyd Homestead. The family's name was Cloyd, and the 
battle goes into history as the Battle of Cloyd Mountain. The mountain 
became afire and the men who were detailed to go up the side of the 
mountain and save the dead and wounded had great difliculty in accom- 
plishing the desired result. Saving those who lay there wounded from 
being burnt up alive. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 59 

lu the battle of Cloyd Mountain, the Confederate report states the Con- 
fedei'ate forces numbered four thousand under command of General Jen- 
kins, who Avas mortally wounded in the engagement. Our numbers were 
thirty-eight hundred, not including our cavalry, which were not in the 
engagement. There were two hundred of the enemy burned outside of 
the fort. Reaching Dublin and army supply station, General Crook ordered 
the burning of a large number of tobacco warehouses. The destruction 
of which it is said amounted to several million dollars. 

On tlie 10th of May we marched to New River. When within a short 
distance of the bridge the enemy opened fire with its artillery of two 
pieces. The 4th Regiment supported our battery at this point. As soon 
as the battery opened the enemy retreated. The bridge was then destroyed, 
our artillery knocking the columns down with solid shot. It was a 
large structure used by the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. The com- 
mand crossed New River in a large flat-bottomed boat. At Pepper's 
Ferry the cavalry and ammunition wagon were forced to ford the rapid 
stream, the shallowest part being three feet. General Crook felt very 
nmch concerned for the welfare of his ammunition train, as a number of 
the cavalry men and horses were drowned in crossing New River. It 
was a wretched night when we crossed New River. It rained in tor- 
rents until we reached Blacksburg. Here it was found necessary to 
destroy a portion of our wagon train as the road became so bad and 
the mountain streams so swollen that it was difficult to get along. 

On May 15th Union was reached, the county seat of Monroe county, 
and on the evening of the IGth we reached Greenbrier River, and that 
was swollen and running over its banks. Here was found a large flat 
boat which the cavalry used, and the regiment was ferried across ii. 

On May 19th, 19G4, we halted at Meadow Bluff, in the southern ex- 
tremity of Fayette county, after a continuous tramp of twenty days. 

Comrades, it was a twenty days continuous march, half the time it 
was skirmishing with the enemy. Every night strong guards had to be 
placed around the camp to avoid surprises. For subsistence the men 
had to depend upon the country, and it was poverty stricken for subsist- 
ence for both men and animals, and by the time the expedition reached 
IMcadow Bluff the men had been suffering for three days without food and 
over three hundred without shoes on their feet in that wild mountainous 
country. Tliis is but a brief review of this great expedition. 

On the 22nd of May, 1SG4, we were ordered to Millville, near Louis- 
burg. On May 29th our time expired, and on the 30th of May we were 
ordered homeward. Marched from Millville, Meadow Bluff, here across 
the Sewell Mountain to the Great Falls, down the Knawaha Valley to 
Cump Piratt, directly opposite Brownstown, on Knawaha River, from 
whence we started with General Crook on his twenty days expedition on 
April 30th. On the 4th of June we embarked on the Jonas Powell, pro- 
ceeded to Pittsburg. On our way up the Ohio River and our landing in 
Pi(tsburg \\e met with a warm reception, which came from the hearts 
of a generous people, especially on our arrival in the oitv of Philadelphia 
June 8th, 1SG4. 

60 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

Comrades of the 4tli Pennsylvania Reserves you are measured by your 
readiness to respond ni defense of your country in the hour of its crisis 
an direct extremity, and by your courage, effectiveness and persistence in 
its service until victory finally crowned our country's cause. No military 
organization of the war of the Rebellion can present a prouder record. 
You promptly responded to the call of President Lincoln, and as he said 
to you in person upon your arrival in Washington at midnight on August 
21st, 1861: "Reserves of Pennsylvania, I thank God you are here to- 
night. You have saved the Capital from capture by a victorious Rebel 

Comrades, during your three years service you were always where 
you were the most needed, and composed as you were of the most vigorous 
of the young men of all parts of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 
You faced an armed foe without flinching and endured hardships and 
privations on the Battlefield, in camp, and on the march with honor to 
your country. 

Comrades, in paying tribute to the memory of the dead the observance 
of ceremonies of this kind is not a recent custom. The ancient Greeks 
and Romans were wont to gather about their fallen heroes and recount 
their virtues and the trophies they had won. Memorables in brass and 
marble, in undying verse and imperishable utterances have come down to 
us through all ages to inspire the ambition of youth and stir the pulse 
of manhood. More than three thousand years ago a monument was 
erected by Divine direction on the shores of Jordan of stone taken from 
the bed of the river which should be for a memorial unto Israel forever. 
Comrades it is fitting we should place this monument here amid the scenes 
enacted upon these hallowed grounds forty-four years ago, and mark the 
footprints of those who have attained a place in the history of their 
country, and while we weave gai-lands of flowers to deck the graves of 
our fallen comrades. Let me, in conclusion, call you attention, com- 
rades, to that beautiful work of art which stands in the centre of Antie- 
tam's National Cemetery, the National monument of a Volunteer soldier, 
upon the base of said monument are inscribed these beautiful words: 

"Not for themselves, but for their country." 

At a signal given by the speaker, Miss Alexine Nicholas, 
daughter of Comrade Alexander F. Nicholas, Secretary of the 
Conimissiou, unveiled the monument, and as the folds of the 
flag gracefully dropped upon the pedestal a veteran proposed 
three cheers which were heartily given, amid great enthus- 

COMRADE REBER: I want to introduce to you one of the 
Comrades of our Regiment, who has undertaken to do what 
no other Comrade of the Fourth Regiment had the courage 
to take hold of, and that is, to write a history of the Fourth 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 61 

Regiment. No ofiicer, nor anyone else connected with the 
Regiment, seemed to wish to take care of the matter to write 
up the liistory of this regiment. Those who had the courage 
seemed to think that they did not have the ability and those 
who had the ability seemed to lack the courage. But this 
comrade whom I will now introduce to you has made a credit- 
able attempt in this direction and I take great pleasure in 
presenting to you Comrade Sergeant M. H. Van Scoten of 
the Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Reserves. 

A COMRADE: That's ''old Hips," three cheers for "old 
Hips." Tlie cheers, were given with a vim. 


Comrades of the Fourth Pennsylvania Reserves: This is a very un- 
expected call for me, and I -will admit to start with that I have not 
made any particular preparation. 

Comrade Markoe has made the marches that we went throu.crh, but 
there are other things connected with the regiment and its service that 
is of as great importance as the battles. 

The fourth regiment was organized at Easton, Pa., on the 17th of 
June, 1861, five companies coming from the city of Philadelphia, one 
from Montgomery county, one from Chester, one from Monroe, one from 
Schuylkill and one from Lycoming. 

There was scarcely a man in the organization at that time from the 
Colonel down that knew "right face" or "left face," or how to form a 
line, but we learned aiifl we remained in this camp until the afternoon 
of the loth of July, when we received marching orders to report at 
Ilarrisburg. This was on the IGth when we went by rail to Harrisburj^ 
On the afternoon of the 17th of July, 1861, we were paraded and we did 
not really know what it was for, but we very soon learned. 

Governor Curtin had an order read asking the regiment whether they 
would be mustered into the United States service for three years or not. 
All those who were willing to be transferred to the United States Volunteer 
service for a period of three years were requested to raise their right hand 
towards high lieaven, and those who were not inclined to do so should 
step six paces to the rear. I liave the honor to say to the survivors here 
today that there was not a man in the fourth regiment that refused to 
raise his right hand to heaven and take the solemn obligation to serve 
three years during the war. 

62 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

Tiiere was not a man in that body of S-17 men as we stood there who 
refused to be mustered into the United States service for three years, 
or who stepped six paces to the rear of the column. 

Comrades, I claim that the Fourth Pennsylvania Reserves occupies a 
unique position in the history of the rebellion, and at this time I wish to call 
attention to the fact that on the occasion of the dedication of the monu- 
ment of the Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves at Gettysburg, the orator 
claimed the distinction of the Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves being the first 
Pennsylvania Reserve Regiment to be mustered into the United States 
service for three years, and he dates the day the 1st of July. 

The records will show that when you men enlisted for three years, at 
that time it was on the afternon of the ITth of July. That was the date 
when we took that solemn obligation for which we occupy the position 
that was claimed by the orator of the Tenth. 

There never was a man in the regiment, as far as my experience goes, 
that ever disobeyed any important order of the commander. Of course 
at that time we were officered rather weakly, but on the afternoon of the 
20th of July we received orders to move by rail to Baltimore. On the 
eve of the 21st we arrived in Baltimore and bivouaced there on the 
green at Bealton Station, with the greensward as a couch and the canopy 
of heaven as a covering. 

Next day was the first day after the battle of Bull Run, and the scene 
in Baltimore was a memorable one. 

Confederate flags were flying from tlie house tops all over the city, 
and we had to contend with jeers and scoffs of the citizens as we marched 
through the public streets of the city of Baltimore. 

You comrades remember that very well, do you not? and you will 
remember also that we were cautioned not to resent any of those in- 
sults, you all remember that. We laid there in camp for about three 
weeks, and were then removed southwest on the 25th of August when 
we were ordered to report to the division at Tennelleytown, and I would 
like to know if there is one comrade surviving here who knows who the 
color guards were f^t that time. I was appointed one of the color guards 
at Easton. 

A COMRADE: Harry Forbes of Company B was a color guard. 

COMRADE VAN SCOTEN: The regiment was out on picket when 
the color guard was marched over to where the colors were and the 
colors were presented to him. 

I received the colors from Governor Curtin, the old regiment standard 
first came into my hands at the time when Sergeant Forbes was sick. 

There we remained until the 9th of October, when we first appeared 
on the soil of Virginia. While we remained at Tenneleytown we were 
whipped into as good a regiment as there was in the division under 
Colonel Magilton. We remained there until the 10th of March and then 
went to Hunter's Mill and made a retrograde movement and marched 
up to the Court House at Bull Run. 

Colonel Markoe has given you the history of the battles we were in, but 
let me tell you, old comrades, as I look over the history of the last war 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 63 

I fiud tliat we had in our regiment on the rolls 978 men, instead of 847, 
and I can prove it. I have looked up the matter a good deal and I make 
it a good deal different from Cyphers and Bates. I have made an estimate 
when the battle of Mechanicsville commenced. We did not have present 
for duty over GOO men. A good many had been discharged and a great 
many had died because we lay in the typhoid region — the second army 
corps lay in the same section where the soldiers of the Spanish War 
lay, which proved so disastrous to them. I say that I have figured up 
the losses, and we had 79 men killed or wounded mortally that died within 

48 hours after the battle. We had one man drowned, Alexander, 

and Sergeant Wiley was killed on the railroad, and another one was 
killed whose name I do not remember, making a total loss of 82 men. 
Charlie Princetenhoffer was poisoned at Baltimore. So you see the per- 
cent of the number of men that went into battle — the men that stood 
by the colors was above Fox's average. Do you remember that, com- 
rades? I think you will figure it differently when you get the 80 men 
that died out of this command. I think that would be a fair estimate to 
name. You comrades who were there at Mechanicsville know that from 
tliat time until Cloyd Mountain and when we went up to tlie Charles 
City Cross Roads we lost 35 men killed. I think the records only have 
15. We lost eight at South Mountain, and at Cloyd Mountain we lost 
30 per cent. Comrades that is a battle we ought all to remember. In five 
minutes we lost SO men, and not only that but w^e were commended by 
General Crook, who commanded us, for bravery. I would like to say just 
one word to the men who were left behind. We were organized into a bat- 
talion of about .300 men and put under Captain Sweet wnth other officers. 
We w^ent to Lynchburg and we made that retreat in seven days and a 
half, without a ration from the government, and on the last day's march 
we had 17 men crawl to the side of the road; men that were used to 
campaigning, that were dead the next day when they sent the abulance 
back for them. We re-organized as Company L, and the records show 
tliat we lost 23 men at the Battle of Brown's Gap. We went through 
Winchester on the 25th, and then made the retreat back to Harper's 
Ferry. We then went clean to Harrisonburg and fell back to Cedar Creek. 
We were surprised on that morning when we fought the Battle of Cedar 
Creek on the 19th of October and lost heavily. We were then sent down 
to the Army of the .Tames, under Butlor, who helped Sheridan, and on 
the 2.5th of March we were sent back over the battlefield of Charles 
City Cross Roads, and I recognized it just as well, when I was there lately, 
as if I had been there forty-eight hours before, although it has changed 

COMRADE REBER: The next speaker to whom we will 
listen will speak on a business proposition. It is not neces- 
sary for me to introduce him, I will merely present to you 
Comrade Alexander Nicholas, the secretary of this commis- 
sion and a member of the Fourth Regiment who has worked 

(54 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

so faithfully in making this occasion the success that it is. He 
has worked hard and deserves credit for what he has done. 

Comrade NICHOLAS: Mr. Chairmau and Comrades: We are very 
anxious that these four monuments should have a commanding position 
on' this field and as you have noticed, the rear of the monuments is 
very close to the wire fence. It is the desire of the Commission that 
we extend the lot, ten feet to the rear, the entire length of the four 
monuments. The Commission has not enough money to purchase this 
..round and it has been suggested that each regimental organization con- 
Tribute its share for the purchase of this ground, so that any visitor may 
walk around the monuments and read the tablet on the rear. I am in- 
formed by a gentleman at Sharpsburg, that the ten feet of ground for 
the four monuments, including the expenses of the attorney, can be pur- 
chased for $300. Understand that that includes the ground for the four 
monuments. That would be $75 for each regiment. The commission has 
not enough money remaining in the treasury to pay this $300, and it has 
been suggested that we collect this amount from each regimental organiza- 
tion The sum is but $75 to make these monuments what they should 
be I hope the comrades will take this matter home with them and 
consider it and send any donation that they can conveniently make to 
Comrade Van Scoten or Comrade John N. Reber at the Grand Army 
Headquarters, Fifth and Chestnut streets, Philadelphia, as soon as pos- 
sible. We will be glad to receive a subscription for whatever amount 
you feel able to give. 

There is another matter to which I wish to call your attention: The 
Commission proposes to go before the next session of the Legislature to 
ask for an appropriation for a book to be published, givmg the full his- 
tory of the dedication of these monuments. I want to say to you m 
regard to the trouble and work involved in the arrangement of the un- 
veiling of these monuments, just this: I began to think when the corres- 
pondence commenced with the members of our regiment, that we had 
brought home more men than we took out. You may think that this is 
a bold assertion, but it is a fact, nevertheless. I thought from the number 
of replies that 1 received through advertisements in the newspapers and 
through Grand Army Posts that this was a fact. 

In conclusion, if you will all just give a little attention to what I said 
a little while ago and make a contribution of any amount you are able 
it will be doing our regiment a great service. If you can give us fifty 
cents or seventv-five cents or a dollar we will be gratified. 

A -entleman in the audience who had lost a relative at Antietam, has 
just given me a contribution of five dollars. He does not wish me to 
give his name and desires it marked "cash." 

After a few minutes Comrade Reber announced: We have 
received a very liberal subscription toward raising the |75, 
and we will have no difficulty at all in getting the amount 





Fourth Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry, Mansfield Avenue, 
Antietam Battlefield. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 65 

The audience sang 'Praise God from "Whom all Blessings 
Flow;" then three cheers were given for the Fourth Eegiment 
and three separate cheers for the Pennsylvania Reserves, with 
a tiger. Comrade Ogden closed the exercises with a bene- 



This Statue also shows the well known pose of a veteran of '61 to '65, 
"Loading Musket," and is particularly interesting and valuable in that 
it faithfully portrays the soldier in the act of ramming home the charge 
of powder, by the use of the long steel ramrod, which, during the Civil 
War, was a detail of the old muzzle loading musket, with which the 
Union Army was equipped. 

Today the metal cartridge has superseded the old paper cartridge, and 
the breech loading rifle has entirely done away with the old muzzle loading 
musket, so that the Commission were especially fortunate in securing an 
accurate and life sized statue, showing the use of the old metal ramrod, 
so entirely foreign to the present method of loading. 

This 7 ft. Statue is made of Westerly, R. I., granite, and stands on 
a pedestal 9 ft. high, and 7 ft. square at the base. This pedestal is com- 
posed of four stones, three rough quarry faced bases and a rough quarry 
faced die stone. 

On the front face of the die stone may be seen carved in granite a 
faithful representation of the old knapsack, cartridge box and canteen, 
together with the tightly rolled blanket strapped to the knapsack. 

On the rear face of the die stone may be seen a large bronze panel 
with raised inscription, as follows: 




Organized .Tune 10th, 1861. Mustered out June 17, 1804. 

The regiment arrived on the field on the afternoon of September lOtli, 

Formed at this point on the morning of the 17th, advanced south about 
600 yards and became engaged with Hood's Confederate Division. 



66 Pennsylvania at Antietam. . 

Recruited five companies in Philadelphia. One in each of the follow- 
ing counties, Montgomery, Chester, Monroe, Lycoming and Susquehanna. 




GAINEiiVILLE, VA., JUNE 27th, 1S62 




SECOND BULL RUN, VA., AUGUST 29th and 30th, 1SG2 



ANTIETAM, SEPTEMBER 16th and 17th, 1862 


PRINCETON, W. VA., MAY 6th, 1864 



BLACKSBURG, W. VA., MAY 11th, 1864. 


Colonel. Robert G. March. 

Lt. Col., John F. Gaul 

Major, Robert M. McClure. 

Major, John Nyce. 

Adjutant, Frank Wilson. 

Quartermaster, Ambrose A. Lochler. 

Surgeon, Adolphus Patze. 

Assistant Surgeon, W. T. W. Dickenson. 

Sergeant Major, Edwin Probasco. 

Quartermaster Sergeant, Joseph Pennypacker. 

Com. Sergeant, William J. Tate. 

Company A. Able Guard of Philadelphia, Captain John Schoenewald. 

Company B. Quaker City Guards, of Philadelphia, Captain Robert M. 

Company C. Montgomery Rifles, of Montgomery county, Captain Isaiah 
W. Kimble. 

Company D. Dickson Guards, of Philadelphia, Captain Nathan .T. 

Company E. Williamsport Legion, of Lycoming county. Captain Fran- 
cis H. Berger. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 67 

Company F. National Guards, of Monroe county, Captain George B. 

Company G. Harmer Guards, of Philadelphia, Captain Thomas F. B. 

Company H. Susquehanna Union Volunteers, of Susquehanna county. 

Captain Elisha B. Gates. 

Company I. Keed Guards, of Philadelphia, Captain Henry Einwechter. 

Company K. Enton Guards, of Chester county. Captain William Babe. 


to be held at 


at the 

Presiding Officer, Capt. John Robinson, Co. F, 7th Regiment. 


By Chaplain A. J. Furman, D. D. 

By Miss Emma P. Foller. 


By Sergt. John I. Foller, Co. A, 7tli Regiment and Late Sergeant Major 
J. Nelson Clark, Co. H, 7tli Regiment. 


Selections of old War Sous by Comrade James C. Turner, Co. F. 


68 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


CAPTAIN JOHN ROBINSON, wlioni the Regimental 
Committee had selected to preside, being absent because 
of sickness, Caj)taiu Jacob Heffelfinger, late of Com- 
pany H, 7th Regiment P. R. V, C, was called to the chair. 

CAPTAIN HEFFELFINGER said: Comrades of the 7th 
Regiment Pennsylvania Reserves, Ladies and Gentlemen: 
Galled, without warning, to this duty, my first inclination was 
to decline. No doubt all will agree with me that the ab- 
sence of Captain Robinson is a distinct loss to this assem- 
blage. However, my habit and desire in all my military ser- 
vice was to obey all calls to duty, and I bring that habit 
down to this day. If a mistake has been made, it is that of 
the Committee, and I am not responsible. On one point I 
may congratulate you; being called to preside without notice, 
I am not prepared to inflict upon you an opening speech. 1 
know that my old comrades, at least, are glad of this, for I 
well recollect that in those old days of action, they had scant 
patience with what they aptly termed "Shooting off the 

As I was whirling along this morning through the beautiful 
Cumberland Valley and looked out upon scenes of beauty, 
prosperity and peace, I thought of the long lapse of time that 
separates us from the scenes of carnage that occurred on 
these fields forty-four years ago. Forty-four years! To us, 
looking backward, the time seems short. But think; children 
that were unborn on that seventeenth day of September, eigh- 
teen hundred and sixty-two, are grand-mothers today. Is it 
not wonderful that a good Providence has spared so many of 
us, though with silvered locks and furrowed cheeks, to be 
here today. 

I will not detain you longer. 

The Rev. A. Judson Furman, late Chaplain of the 7th Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Reserves, will now invoke the Divine 

Chaplain of 7th Regiment who delivered the prayer at the Dedication 


Pennsylvania at Antietam. 69 


Let us reverently pray: Oh, Thou God of Nations and God of Battles, 
we are profoundly impressed with Thy grace today and our emotions well 
nigh overcome us as we stand on this batlefield, wher so many of us were 
forty-four years ago; where great deeds were performed; where a great 
battle was fought and a victory was won. We desire, this day, as we 
come into this place, and under these circumstances, to magnify the name 
of our God and to praise Him who gave us victory here and on other 
battlefields, and now Lord, our God, we would come unto Thy presence 
and we trust that Thou art here in Thy presence, and with a benediction 
from us, acknowledging Thy greatness and Thy mercy, we bow before 
Thee and humble ourselves before Thee and ask that Thou would'st let 
benedictions fall upon us all, as we are gathered here. Wilt Thou bless, 
O Lord, the remnant of the Pennsylvania Reserves, and of the 7th Regi- 
ment, as we bow to Thee, standing around this monument today thanking 
God in their hearts that has kept them through all these years, not only 
That gave us victory then but victory since on many moral battlefields, 
and praise Thee that so many representatives stand before Thee today. 

Oh God while we thank Thee for all that has been done, we pray Thy 
blessing upon us for future life. Wilt Thou bless the officers of this asso- 
ciation; wilt Thou bless every member of our 7th Reserves and every 
member of the whole association of Reserves. Wilt Thou let blessings fall 
upon their wives and children that are remaining and the descendants of 
their families that witness this ceremony today. 

Oh God, we would not forget the soldier. We would not forget these 
men who left their homes and came to battle for the right and for the 
truth, and pray that Thou would'st not forget them, but wilt Thou draw 
them close to Thee and make them all more and more like Thee and let 
blessings fall upon their children and all their descendants in the memories 
that they cherish, of the bravery their fathers exercised on the battle- 
field and of the victories they won here and elsewhere, in this great war. 

Oh, God, wilt Thou let blessings fall upon them and while we stand 
around these monuments today, oh grant that we may have higher re- 
sioilves and more lofty purposes to go forth in life and be soldiers, not 
for our country alone, but of the Cross of Christ; soldiers in the battle of 

Oh, that every soldier of these reserves may be a true soldier, enlisted 
under the one standard, the Flag of Bethlehem, and go forward for 
salvation engaged in that service that will bring us joy and gladness. 

And now, Father, we come to Thee to ask Thy blessing upon the great 
nation under which our soldiers fought and the great state of which we 
are members, and the memory of the great Governor who was the War 
Governor in those troublous times. While he is gone to his reward, 
bless his loved ones and his family as they remain. We thank Thee for 
the presence of the Chief Executive of our State today. God bless the 
Governor and his, and now let blessings fall upon us all. 

70 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

Oh, our Father, we know not how to love Thee, and we know not how 
to multiply words before Thee. We can do notiiiug but ask Thy blessing 
and that Thy blessing may fall upon us all and all those represented 
here, that mercy and peace be granted unto them and a greater love, and 
a greater fidelity to the God of Nations and the God of Battles, and our 
own Nation and our own State, and each one now here. We ask again 
that blessings may fall upon all, aud keep Thou us until the time of the 
last battle. Do Thou cherish aud sustain us and keep us that we may 
be faithful to Thee aud at last when the roll is called up yonder may we 
be there, all of us, to enter into the rest that remains for the people of 
God, to stand in Eternity with our Lord. 

We ask it all in Jesus' name. Amen. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Tlie young lady whom I am about to in- 
troduce, and who will unveil this monument, is not without 
due claims to this honor. In that barn (pointing to the Poff- 
enberger barn) young Leo W. Foller, of Company A, 7th Regi- 
ment Reserves, breathed his last, having been brought thither 
after the battle by his brother, Sergeant John I. Foller, who 
will later address you. His body was interred under those 
apple trees to my right. I take pleasure in introducing to you 
Miss Emma P. Foller, daughter of Sergeant John I. FoUer, 
and niece of tlie late Leo W. Foller, who fell on this field. 

Amid cheers. Miss Foller drew the drapery of flags from 
the monument. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I now have the pleasure of introducing 
Sergeant John I. Foller, late of Company A, 7th Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Reserves, who participated in ail the campaigns 
of the Regiment. 


Mr. President, and Comrades of tlie 7th Regiment, Pennsylvania Re- 
serves, Ladies and Gentlemen: We have met this morning on this historic 
field to participate in the dedication of a monument where forty-four years 
ago today stood the 7th Regiment to which you had the honor to belong. 
It may be of interest to others to know how and when we got here. 
In April, 1861, when the news flashed over the wires that the rebels had 
fired on the old flag at Fort Sumter, scarcely had the echo of the first 
-gun died away when up from the hills and valleys of our grand old 
State sprang the young men and boys eager to battle for the imperilled 
Republic. The first call was so promptly filled, and as the Pennsylvania 

Who unveiled the monument of the 7th Regiment. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 71 

Reserves were organized for State defence, we were not able to get in 
the first call. 

Companies were recruited in different parts of the State and our great 
War Governor, Andrew G. Curtin, in his wisdom had several camps estab- 
lished, where the various companies were ordered to assemble. In June, 
1861, twenty companies assembled at West Chester, out of which were 
formed the 1st and 7th Reserves. You all remember how we, as raw 
recruits, were drilled (with sticks for guns), and we were taught the first 
duties of a soldier. We remained in camp until the eventful day when 
the Federal Army was defeated at the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 
1801. The Federal Government was then very glad to accept our sei?- 
vices, being the only organized body of troops in the State. We were 
ordered to Washington to defend the capital, arriving there two days after 
the battle of Bull Run, and in a short time the whole division was assem- 
bled in the city. The division at that time numbered 16,000 meu, fully 
armed and equipped and eager to battle for their country. 

We went into camp 'at Teuallytown, a short distance from the Capital, 
where we were thoroughly drilled and instructed in the art of war. 

We were assigned to the 2d Brigade, commanded by one of the grandest 
a,nd best soldiers who ever drew a sword in defence of his country. 
General George Gordon Meade (God bless him). We remained in camp 
until the first week of October, and were then sent across the Chain 
Bridge uito the sacred soil of Virginia, and went into camp which was 
called Camp Pierpont. 

During the fall and winter the boys had their full share of drill and 
picket duty to perform, which made them veteran soldiers when the time 
arrived. You all know how Col. Harvey put us through the regimental 
drill until we were almost ready to rebel, and some of you boys did on 
one occasion. During the winter we enjoyed ourselves as best we could 
between our duties as soldiers. We remained in camp five months, sub- 
jected to the strictest military discipline. 

You all remember the first battle of the Civil War in which the Union 
army was victorious was at Drainesvillc, Virgiuia, and was fought alone 
by the Reserves. 

In March, 1802, we were sent to tlie Plains of Manassas to draw the 
rebel army out, and when we arrived there they had fled. You all remem- 
ber the long march to Hunter's ]Mill, and then back to Alexandria during 
a terrible rain storm. 

We next went to Falmouth, Virginia, and remained in camp for some 
time under the command of General McDowell, who commanded an army 
corp at that time. 

In June, 1862, we were sent to re-enforce General McClellan on the 
Peninsula, arriving at Yorktown. We then went up the Pamunkey River 
to White House landing, and were 'immediately sent to the extreme right 
of the army, and only three miles from Richmond. 

You all know how we began the seven days fighting before Richmond, 
beginning at Mechanicsville, June 26th. and continuing on down to Mal- 
vern Hill on July 1, 1862, and finally arrived at Harrison's Landing on 
the James River. My comrades, no one knows but those who went 

72 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

through that tei'rible ordeal how we suffered and toiled in the swamps 
of the Chickahomiuy, and how many of our dear comrades were left 
behind to lill unknown graves. 

We remained at Harrison's Landing until August, 18G2, when we were 
put on transports and taken to Fortress Monroe, and from thence to 
Acquia Creek on the Potomac River, and thence to Falmouth, where we 
had left a few short months before. 

You all remember the long weary march of thirty-five miles in the 
hot burning sun to Rappahannock Station to destroy a bridge at that 
place to prevent Lee's army from crossing. 

From Warrenton to the battle ground of the second Bull Run was our 
next move, and you all know how disastrous that campaign was to the 
Federal Army. Though beaten, but not dismayed, we fell back to the 
defences at Washington, and crossed the Potomac on Sunday, September 
7th, and here the ladies served us with coffee and good things to eat. 

By slow easy marches we reached Frederick City on September 14th, 
a beautiful Sunday morning, as the church bells were calling the faithful 
to their churches, when hark! the sound of artillery in the distance was 
heard, twelve miles off, and the command to fall in and double quick to 
South Mountain, which we reached about noon, and took part in that 
terrible conflict, in which General Reno was killed, and after driving 
the enemy from the field, on the morning of the 15th, we retraced our 
steps and passed through the Gap to Boonesboro and on to Keedysville, 
and remained in battle line during the whole time. In the afternoon of 
the 16th we made an assault on the enemy and a terrible artillery duel 
ensued. We remained in line of battle during the night of the 16th and 
within thirty feet of the enemy, as our division was in the advance and 
the closest to the enemy. At 5.15 in the morning of the 17th the battle 
began, the first gun being fired by the Pennsylvania Reserves. 

My comrades you all know the result of the battle. How we were moved 
from place to place from early morn until three in the afternoon. The 
regiment lost 70 in killed and wounded out of about 250 men. Among 
the killed was the gallant Capt. Colwell, of Company A, who fell dead 
at the head of his company. One shell alone killed and wounded seven 
of Company A. 

It would be impossible to enumerate the gallant deeds of the men of 
the regiment. I am not here to give you the history of the 7th Regiment, 
and besides I could not do so. I know that all the hardships and suffer- 
ing endured during our almost four years service will never be written. 
No true record of those who were killed or died of wounds, or the large 
number starved to death in southern prisons at Andersonville and Flor- 
ence will ever be known. 

The 7th participated in several campaigns after Antietam. In May, 
3864, it was in the Wilderness under _General Grant, and on the 5th 
of the month the whole regiment was captured and taken to southern 
prisons, where out of a total of 325 captured, over 150 starved to death. 
The few remaining were released at the close of the war in April, 1865. 
The division was mustered out at Harrisburg in June, 1864, and the 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 73 

grand total of the 7tli Regimeut at the final muster was but 60 men 
out of one thousand or more who had left the State three years before. 

Many of its gallant boys fill a patriot soldier's grave on some of the great 
battlefields of the Civil War. 

Many of the poor unfortunate boys who died in southern prisons were 
not permitted to share a soldier's grave on the field of battle, but dying 
like some ancient martyr in love with his country and his God. 

Such, my dear comrades, is a brief outline of the 7th Regiment. 

We have ssembled here today where forty-four years ago two powerful 
armies met on this field and from early morn until darkness enveloped 
the field did they struggle for supremacy. Hard fought was the struggle; 
hideous was the combat as men cried in the passion of desperate strife; 
as they sank under the fatal touch of the lead and shot. You all know 
the result. The rebels were defeated at every point and were obliged to 
retrace their steps into Virginia. Had the Union army been defeated there 
would have been no Gettysburg. The rebel army would have captured 
Baltimore and Washington, and France and England were then ready to 
recognize the Southern Confederacy. 

The battle of Antietam was one of the hardest contested battles of 
the Civil War. In one short day no less than 20,000 men on both sides 
were killed or wounded. History has never recorded such a loss, and 
the world never saw such heroism as was displayed on this field of carnage. 

But, comrades, the days are past and gone, and the great events are 
written in letters of gold in the pages of our country's history, and 
while the echoes of war have died away, yet the memory today returns 
to us of the dreadful carnage we faced on this field. 

It is a great privilege to return to the spot and to meet the silvery 
locks of so many dear comrades whom God in His Divine wisdom has per- 
mitted to live and see this day, that we may pay tribute to the memory of 
our dear ones who died on this field that this Nation might live. 

As we stand around this beautiful shaft, let us not forget the debt we 
owe to the grand old Commonwealth of Pennsylvania who so generously 
contributed to the erection of these beautiful monuments, and may they 
last until the end of time. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I now take pleasure in introducing Dr. 
Joseph Nelson Clark, late Sergeant Major of the 7th Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Reserves. 


Survivors of the Seventh Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserves, Ladies and 
Gentlemen: Forty-four years ago witnessed one of the most crucial battles 
of the war. One of the most hotly contested, but by the blessings of 
our loving Heavenly Father, ended with victory for the Union forces. 

74 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

The battle has passed hito history as the most terrific single days' 
fighting of the whole war of the Rebellion. At its close 24,000 men in 
round numbers, lay dead and wounded on the field, being nearly one- 
fifth of all the forces here engaged. .It was out fortune and our duty 
then to represent in that struggle the great State of Pennsylvania. Another 
has well said when the great conflict came, Pennsylvania sent 360,000 of 
her brave sons to the front and had it been necessary she would have fur- 
nished as many more. 

On every firing line, from the first defiant gun at Bull Run to the 
last expiring shot of the rebellion at Appomattox, her volunteer soldiery 
stood like a living Gibralter against the country's foes. In every battle 
their blood hallowed the soil. In every military prison they heroically 
bore sufferings worse than death. In the great deeds of valor per- 
formed on this field on Wednesday, September 17th, 18G2, the soldiers 
from Pennsylvania were everywhere conspicuous. A Peunsylvanian com- 
manded the Union army on that fateful day. That noble Pennsylvania 
soldier who less than ten months later was to win the most important 
battle of the whole war, and become one of the triumvirate of the greatest 
American captains — George Gordon Meade — commanded first a division 
and then an army corps on this ground; General Meade's first command 
was as brigade commander of the four regiments — 3rd, 4th, 7th and 
8th Pennsylvania Reserves, that on this happy occasion are dedicating the 
four monuments to the patriotic dead who fell on this sanguinary field. 

In all 44 regiments of infantry, eight batteries and five cavalry bat- 
talions from that state fought here on that day, and fifteen other Penn- 
sylvania regiments were within supporting distance. They were in every 
corps and were posted on all parts of the field, and their aggregate losses 
wei*e twenty-nine hundred and sixty-four ofBcers and men, or almost 
exactly twenty-four per cent, of the casualties of the entire army. 

In this hard fought and sanguinary battle of Antietam nearly 24,000 
men had fallen on both sides and the casualties in each army were 
practically equal. The full fruits of the awful contest was not gai'uered. 
but it was the most signal and important victoi'y the Union arms had 
to that time achieved. Its results ended for the time Lee's bold project 
of an invasion of the North, and they astonished and dismayed his 

Longstreet says of them, "The razing of the walls of Jerico by en- 
circling marches of priests and soldiers, at the signal of long blown 
blasts of sacred horns and shouts of the multitude, was scarcely a 
greater miracle than the transformation of the conquering army of the 
South into a horde of disorganized fugitives before an army that two 
weeks earlier was flying to cover under its homeward ramparts." 

The North took new courage and hope from the battle. Its loyal people 
hailed Antietam as the turning point of the war. 

As McClellan's brigades and divisions tightened themselves about Lee's 
legions on that eventful day, drawing their coils closer and closer in 
deadly embrace, so the Northern people beheld in their quickened faith 
the power of the Republic surely closing in upon the Rebellion for death. 
It was the beginning of the end. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 75 

Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Chattanooga, the Wilderness, Atlanta and 
Petersburg were yet to become necessary, but Antietam was the mornmg 
star of a new and glorious day of peace and National reconciliation. 

The weather on Wednesday the 17th September, 1862, was clear and 
both armies were waiting until tlie morning light appeared to commence 
the deadly struggle. McClellan advanced the eager First Corps men as 
soon as they could see the enemy. 

"The ever ready and reliable General Meade, with his Pennsylvania 
reserves— the Third Division, gets the first sight, and with a rattle, a 
crash and a roar, the battle is on, promptly joined by the other two 
divisions and the batteries on the crest." 

Right, left and centre were engaged during the day and at its close the 
Union victory was won. 

And now, how may we most worthily dedicate this monument. Almost 
forty-three years ago, on a similar occasion, the one who made the golden 
rule the rule of his life, Abraham Lincoln, one of earth's greatest and 
noblest of men, in a classic which will be admired as long as English 
literature shall exist, said in part, "We are met on a great battlefield 
of the war, we have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final 
resting place for those who here gave their lives that the nation might 

"It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a 
larger sense, we can not dedicate — we cannot consecrate — we cannot hal- 
low this ground. 

"The brave men living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated 
it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little 
note or long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what 
they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to 
the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly 
advanced. It is better for us to be here dedicated to the great task re- 
maining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased de- 
votion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died 
in vain." 

Wa are glad to know that our friends north and south are loyal to 
our flag and now vie with each other in doing it honor. 

In conclusion, my comrades and friends, we ought to all rejoice and thank 
God that we are now a re-united nation, although it did require four 
years of bloody strife to bring this about; and let us all pray and trust 
that never again will there be a war among ourselves, but forever we 
shall have but one country and one flag, and that country shall be our own 
common country. The United States of America and that flag the Stars 
and Stripes of our beloved land. 

The band played a selection which was followed with a 
song by Comrade Heffelflnger, which was received with three 
cheers and a tiger. 

The assembly then sang "America." 

76 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

THE CHAIRMAN: My dear Comrades, after the Benedic- 
tion by Chaplain Furman, this regimental meeting will stand 
adjourned without day. I cannot tell you how glad it has 
made me to meet you all here today. My parting word is: 
"May God bless us all." 

Chaplain A. J. Furman pronounced the benediction: 

Now unto Him who is able to keep us from falling, and present 
us faultless before His throne, be praise; and may He grant that grace and 
mercy and peace shall rest upon you all now, and forever. Amen and 



The Seventh Pennsylvania Reserve represents the Union Soldier of 'Gl 
and "05, in the act of "Drawing Ramrod," one of the details of "Loading," 
according to the old tactics of the Civil War. 

This Statue also is valuable from a historical point of view, by reason 
of the use of the old iron ramrod, which was necessary to the tactics 
then employed in the detail of loading the musket at the muzzle, instead 
of breaking the gun open at its breech and inserting the metal cartridge, 
as is done with the modern rifle at present. 

This Statue is 7 ft. high, and is made of Westerly, R. I., granite, and 
rests on a pedestal'! ft. square at the base and 9 ft. high overall. 

The pedestal is of the best Barre granite, and is made in three pieces, 
the lower base and die stone being rough quarry faced stone, with 
hammered margins. The second base is a fine hammered stone, with a 
Gothic pediment on the front face. The top of the die stone is nicely 
carved, and symbolizes the quality of Strength and Union, by an orna- 
mental member taken from the Roman "fasces," showing a bundle of 
rods tightly bound about by crossed cords, etc. 

On the front face of this die stone, is attached a large bronze tablet, 
with raised letters, which furnishes the following inscription: 





Organized June 2G, 18G1. Mustered out .Tune IG, 18G4. 
The regiment arrived on the field on the afternoon of September IG, 



I- I 

Seventh Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry, Mansfield Avenue, 
Antietam Battlefield. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


Formed at this point on the morning of the 17th. Advanced about 600 
yards south and became engaged with Hood's Confederate Division. 



Total 72 




78 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


THE ceremonies of the dedication began at ten o'clock 
a. m., September 17, 190C, with the following program: 

Music, "My Country 'Tls of Thee." 

Prayer, Lieut. A. S. Eagleson, Co. K, 8th Regiment, Wash- 
ington, Pa. 

Our Father who art in Heaven, we desire to come unto Thee to 
ask Thy blessing to rest upon us in the ceremonies in which we are 
about to take part — to commemorate our fallen comrades and those who 
have given their lives for their country. We pray Thy blessing on those 
Avho survive. We desire to thank Thee for a country which has given 
us a new nation, with fi-eedom, happiness and prosperity, and to thank 
Thee that our comrades have not shed their blood in vain. We pray 
that the fraternity of feeling which enables us to consider those who have 
gone before as brothers will help us to consider each and every one who 
remains as a comrade and a brother. That they will be dear to us even 
unto the going down into the valley of death. Grant unto us we pray 
Thee the' pardon of our sins and own and save us for the Redeemer's 
sake. Amen. 

Miss Mayette McWilliams, daughter of Mr. Daniel McWil- 
liams, Co. D, Sth Regiment, Pittsburg, unveiled the monument 
and spoke as follows: 

With the pride of a soldier's daughter in the history of his noble regi- 
ment, the Eighth Pennsylvania Reserves, and proud of the honor con- 
ferred by assigning this duty to me, I now unveil this perpetual memorial 
of patriotic devotion to the dead and living of the regiment on this his- 
toric ground. 

Music, "Stars and Stripes." 



Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen: We are assembled here upon this 
historic field to add our tribute and our gratitude to the brave men who 
by their death and blood made sacred this memorable spot — we are here 


Who offered the prayer at the Dedication of the 8th Regiment 


Pennsylvania at Antietam. 79 

to dedicate, to consecrate, if possible, these chiseled stones to the memory 
of the silent dead and the gi-ay-haired survivor— to dedicate it to the 
memory of their children and children's children to the remotest end of 
the future. , It is most fitting that we do this, though our presence here 
can but feebly add to the sentiment that inspired the erection of this 
memorial. By an act of the Legislature of our State, all Pennsylvania 
regiments not having monuments at Gettysburg are entitled to one at 
Antietam if they fought there. And here, upon the 44th anniversary of 
the battle, the Governor of our State, his staff and other distinguished 
gentlemen of Pennsylvania, Maryland and other States have come with 
us to pay, not only their official, but their personal, devotion to the soldiers 
of the Union, dead and living. 

We are grateful for their consideration and thank our grand old Com- 
monwealth, its Governor and Legislature, for these fine memorials, pleased 
that nearly half a century after the war their memories are not dimmed, 
their recognition of a faithful service is not forgotten, that our people go 
onward in the just conviction that a government that forgets its de- 
fenders loses its patriotism and endangers its existence. No people ever 
long retained their freedom who are ignorant of the cost or failed to 
appreciate the men who made it possible that they enjoy these blessings. 
May our people grow in the love of country and instill into the youth 
the lessons of patriotism. All honor, all glory to a nation, to a people 
who apreciate the suffering, the sacrifice and the success of the men who, 
out of the carnage of a fierce conflict, carved a government fashioned in 
humanity, eudowned with liberty and blessed with Christianity, molded to 
the liking of the oppressed of all the world; to whose shores the seekers 
for liberty and comfort flock in endless procession to establish homes, to 
educate their children, to enjoy opportunity and to worship God in the 
dictates of their own conscience without hindrance or oppression. To hold 
sacred and dissoluble this favored land a great war was fought. Here, 
as upon other fields, in that great cause, Pennsylvania poured out her 
richest blood and gave the best of her living to the fatalities of war. 

We are met to establish monuments to the Third, Fourth, Seventh and 
Eighth Regiments, Pennsylvania Volunteer Corps. Though a commis- 
sioner for the whole work, it is now my part of the general proceedings 
to speak of those matters which pertain more particularly to the last 
regiment named, the substantial old Eighth. I will not attempt to detail 
the history of the command or on what road they marched or where they 
bivouaced, or who commanded them; nor do I propose to enumerate 
individual otBcers or gallant men who rendered us such splendid ser- 
vice. The time is too short and to try to cover these deserving facts 
a longer period is necessary, for 1 am admonished that 1 must be brief. 
We will take the regiment liero and on a few other conspicuous fields 
until the close of the enlistment. The historian has fully traced your 
way and recorded your deeds. It was American against American that 
met here. No Greek or ancient strove more heroically for the mastery. 
Like gladiators of old, they met and struggled until exhaustion, wounds 
or death so weakened their efforts that others took their places and so 
on until the end of that fierce carnival of blood and death. 

80 Pennsylvania at Antietam, 

Turn your eyes to the woods yonder on your left, to a point about 75 
or SO yards into the corn — there was the left of the line of our brigade, the 
position of this regiment. At that time the field was in corn at the 
northern edge of the point indicated, running at right angles toward the 
Hagerstown pike and about square with the front of these monuments, 
was the line of battle on the night of the IGth of September, 1862. 

General Seymour, in his report, says Avhen asking that reinforcements 
be sent, before daylight in the morning that "the troops lay feet to 
feet with the enemy," waiting for the coming day, when began one of 
the fiercest day's fighting in the history of our country. The Eighth stood 
so close to the enemy that their loAvest speech could be heard, as did 
the other regiments — almost in fencing distance or the touch of the 
bayonet. In the first light of the 17th the conflict was on. It would seem 
that no courage could meet such conditions, but this gallant regiment 
stood — they all stood — and hurled the enemy back with frightful loss. 
Again they return, once more repulsed, and again the same, until the 
very ground was bedewed with human blood and thousands lay dead in 
the ripening corn. Thus all day long the battling hosts surged back and 
forth, striving their utmost to uphold safe riddled flags and maintain their 
thinning ranks. The sharp report of the rifle, the spiteful yelp of the 
parrot gun, the sullen roar of the Napoleons, hurled a ceaseless storm of 
lead and iron, battering down the ranks of rebellion, maintaining the 
National Government. 

If you will turn your faces again and look toward the Bunker's Church 
yonder on the roadside, fix a point about 200 yards beyond it, draw a line 
toward the creek to our left, thence back this way toward the line of 
battle spoken of, taking in a tract of land about one-fourth of a mile 
wide by one-half of a mile long — that ground was covered so thickly 
with the dead that it was possible to cross the field in any direction 
stepping from one body to another. You now look upon the bloodiest 
spot upon the American continent. Upon that field more human blood 
was spilled, more lives were lost, than on any other spot of like area 
in the National Union. 

Why not erect monuments here? The very spears of grass, the blades of 
com, the life-giving soil speak in mute eloquence of this hallowed spot, 
this couch of the dead, this place of human sacrifice. It should almost 
certainly be owned by the Government for which this great sacrifice was 
made. Take it out of the quest for gain, let it rest in endless glory for all 
time to come, touch it with tlie finger of art, adorn it with attractive 
monuments and place them where those brave men stood and died so that 
historic inscription may say they fought here, not over yonder somewhere 
in a cornfield. A great nation was saved, out of which a great prosperity 
came, and it is fitting that this Government takes under its protecting 
care these sacred spots. 

Pennsylvania took a great and glorious part in the suppression of the 
rebellion. This word rebellion seems, after forty years of peace, to be 
harsh and un-American, yet by any other name there is the same defini- 
tion. There were two sides to the contest, one to preserve the Nation 

One of the committee from the 8th Regiment. 

Pennsylvania at Antietani. 81 

in its lawful authority, the other to destroy it and establish another. 
Which was rightV We will not argue that. The arbitrament of war, 
the grace of God and the strongest battalions have given us a prosperous 
and happy country, unequalled in all the earth. We are satisfied with it. 
We have forgotten the mistakes and hold naught against those who were 
mistaken. Man is wont to err, to forgive and to forget. 

In the war for the Union no State excels the Keystone, either in quality, 
character, energy or patriotism. My friend, Colonel William F. Fox, of 
the 107th New York Volunteers, in his matchless book of "Regimental 
Losses of the American Civil War," gives the highest praise to our State. 
He says the percentage of killed in the soldiers of the old Keystone State, 
as based upon the white troops, is greater than in the quota of any 
other Northern State; that the cavalry of the State were likewise good 
fighters; that their total loss in action exceeded the losses of any other 
State. He says further that the Pennsylvania regiments were second to 
none and that the cavalry of the State as a wliole were unsui-passed. 
Cooper's battery lost a greater percentage of killed and died of wounds 
than any battery in the service. 

It may interest you, if you are not already familiar with the fact, 
that this regiment was among the 26 regiments in the Union Army that 
sustained the greatest percentage of loss in killed and died of wounds. 
But six of the Pennsylvania regiments lost more and they in the order 
named are 

140th Pennsylvania, killed and mortally wounded, 17.4 per cent. 

11th Pennsylvania Reserves, killed and mortally wounded, IG.G per cent. 

142nd Pennsylvania, killed and mortally w^ounded, 10.5 per cent. 

14lst Pennsylvania, killed and mortally wounded, 10.1 per cent. 

14Sth Pennsylvania, killed and mortally wounded, 1.5.0 per cent. 

83rd Pennsylvania, killed and mortally wounded, 15.5 per cent. 

The 140th Regiment lost the greatest percentage of any regiment in 
the State, 17.4 per cent. We were seventh, with 14.8 per cent.. Very 
few regiments had as few deaths by disease as we had. We lost more 
in action than any other regiment in the Division, except the 11th Re- 
serve, which was in several tight places, and many of them were captured, 
notwithstanding their gallant resistance. Our regiment was composed of 
good, sturdy young fellows, mostly from the farm, where 48 per cent, 
of the Union Army came from. Twenty-four per cent, were mechanics, 
10 per cent, were laborers, 5 per cent, were in commercial pursuits, 3 
per cent, were professional men and 4 per cent, were of miscellaneous 
vocation; and they averaged twenty-five years of age. 

The Fighting Eighth Regiment was consistent, determined, not rash, 
ably commanded by Hays, Baney, Lemon, Oliphant, Johnston and other 
gallant ofiicers, who for a time were in command. It was tenacious, 
stood well and charged strong and believed that a fight to victory was 
better than a draw, even at a greater cost. 

You read the inscription here. It tells its own story. Active service 
begets its many scars. A study of regimental action shows the regiments 
which faced musketry the steadiest, longest and oftenest are the ones 

82 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

whose aggregate loss during the war was greatest. Fighting regiments 
leave a wake of blood behind them; retreating regiments leave but few 
men. Out of all the regiments in the Union army but 25 lost more than 
the Eighth in killed and died of wounds. Many of the regiments whose 
losses were greater served through the entire war to April 9, 1865. As 
you will remember, our regiment left the army May 17, 1864, and was dis- 
charged at Pittsburg May 24, 1804. 

In the useless, because unsupported, charge at Fredericksburg, the regi- 
ment lost 44 men killed out of 204 engaged, or 10 per cent. In that 
memorable charge the Pennsylvania Reserve Division equalled in valor 
and force the brightest features of Pickett's brave men at Gettysburg and 
excelled it in accomplishment, having in good order reached its objective 
point, broken and driven off the Confederate right centre and held the 
ground fully long enough to have been reinforced; but the looked-for help 
never came. The percentage of loss in the division equalled that of 
Pickett. These charges, similar as to the terrain, were different in num- 
bers. I think, though I am not quite certain, that Pickett had about 25 
per cent, more men than Meade. Both these gallant efforts were fail- 
ures, would be now and always will be, for lack of proper support and 
fresh men at the point of contact and a strong body of fresh troops to 
stand against the retrieving force. 

Pennsylvania, at the first alarm, was foremost in sending her troops to 
the relief of the Capitol at Washington. The Ringgold Light Artillery, of 
Reading, the Logan Guards, of Lewistown, the Washington Artillery and 
National Light Infantry, of Pottsville, the Allen Rifles, of Allentown, en- 
tered the city at 7 P. M., April 18, 1861. The first volley to greet the 
invading force was delivered by a Pennsylvania regiment at Gettysburg, the 

The losses in the brigade that is here today were as follows: 

Third Regiment, 3 officers and 69 men killed; 2 officers and 64 men 
died— 1.38. 

Fourth Regiment, 2 officers and 76 men killed; 1 officer and 60 men 
died— 139. 

Seventh Regiment, 3 officers and 80 men killed; 135 men died — 218. 

Eighth Regiment, 5 officers and 153 men killed; 68 men died — ^226. 

The loss in the battle on the Union side in this engagement was: 

Killed, : 2,108 

Wounded, 9,549 

Captured and missing, 753 

Total 12,410 

of which Pennsylvania suffered within a very small fraction of 24 per 

The Confederate loss is not divided. It includes their actions from 
the 12th to the 20th of September, taking in all the battles and skirmish- 
ing from Frederick, Maryland, to this place, and they place it at 12,601, 


One of the members of Committee of the 8th Regiment. 

84 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

other in history. Near 95,000 were killed with tlie bullet; upwards of 
186,000 died of disease; and 35,000 to 50,000 died from other causes. 

As an evidence of the spleudid fighting qualities of both armies at 
Gettysburg we note that of the officers holding a general's command, divi- 
sions, brigades, corps, etc., 38 on the Confederate side and 58 on the 
side of the Federals were killed and wounded. I challenge all authentic 
histoi'y, ancient or modern, for such a parallel. 

The charge of the gallant Six Hundred at Balaclava was a blunder, 
from which no possible benefit could accrue except mere attrition, heralded 
in song and story as the bravest of all deeds of war; its loss was 36.7 
per cent. Compare it with the above figures and it sinks into a minor 
place and is more than half a hundred below the percentage of losses in 
organizations in the battles of our war. But Americans were fighting 
Americans here. All records for daring and bravery must be broken and 

Forty thousand Marylanders followed the right flag in the days of our 
distress and found their way into the ranks of the Union army and 
fought valiantly for the cause. No invidious distinction is intended in 
these statistics. Regiments that lost less than these fought splendidly and 
victoriously, perhaps against a weaker spot in the lines of the enemy. 
They were just Americans, tempered alike in their courage, who could 
sing "The Star Spangled Banner" and die like gentlemen had the necessity 
demanded it. 

But I must stop, having already gone beyond the limit I intended. To 
the comrades here, Diebold, Steele, El)erhart, McWilliams, and others, as 
well as our friends, I extend congratulations on having received for our 
beloved old command this beautiful monument. May its memory and 
significance dwell in our hearts as long as we live and in our countrymen 
forever. Those who died here, adorned with glorious achievement, are 
entitled to the gratitude of a most grateful people. They gave the last 
full measure of their devotion. Sleep on, In-ave hearts, thy slumber homes 
will ne'er more be disturbed by contending brother; sleep on, ye sainted 
dead, content in your repose that you gave your country all that thy Maker 
gave to thee. There is no compensation for death, except the reward 
of heaven; the spirit of patriotism and the angels of heaven keep ceaseless 
watch o'er your silent bivouac; at the reveille of the world thou wilt 
appear at the throne of the Infinite, garbed in all the splendor and honor 
that glory can bestow. 


Fellow citizens of the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Comrades 
of the Eighth Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps: We 
do ourselves distinguished honor by meeting today on this historic field 
to do honor to the brave men who nearly half a century ago wrote 
history in their own warm life blood on this field. Think we not that 

Who unveiled the monument of the 8th Regiment. 

/ \ 

Of the 8th Regiment and one of the Regimental Committee. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 85 

any word or act of ours cau add to their names or one green leaf to the 
fadeless laurel ^Yreath that encircles their brow. Think we not so. 
That is not the purpose for which we are met. Rather think we that 
standing for a brief period amidst these sacred surroundings, we may 
draw inspiration from the pure fountain head. While we dedicate this 
monument to the memory of that day and those deeds let us be re- 
dedicated to the sacred duty of honoring, defending and perpetuating that 
government for which you, my comrades, fought and for which they died 
on this sanguinary spot. Far be it from us to wish to disturb them in 
their rest. Rather would we 

Leave them alone in their glory. 

Leave them alone with their fame; 
Leave to the future the story 

Written to each honored name. 

Let not the sound of our tramping 

Break on their peaceful repose; 
Break on them quietly camping 

After their last battle's close. 

Let not the bugle's sharp summons 

Wake them to "wars' dread alarms;" 
Let not the stirring drums rattle 

E'er again call them to arms. 

Rather let quiet unbroken 

Brood o'er each one in his bed. 
Rather let silence betoken 

The reverence we have for our dead. 

When the last order be given, 

When the last trumpet shall sound; 
When each sacred mound shall be riven 

In all of this hallowed ground; 

Then shall the valiant awaken. 

Then shall these heroes arise; 
Then shall our comrades be taken 

To reap their reward in the skies. 

Until then— each flying minute— 

Until then, rest noble braves! 
Until then, enduring granite. 

Watch keep over their graves. 


The Eighth Pennsylvania Reserve Monument is unique in that it 
depicts the Union soldier of '01 and 'Gf. in the position of "Carry arms," 
one of the first positions taught in military tactics, and at the same 
time, one of the most military positions that a soldier can assume, 
and yet this particular statue is believed to be the only piece of granite 
or bronze statuary in the world shown in this particular position. 

8^ Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

This statue is carved out of Westerly, R. I., granite, and is 7 ft. tall. 
It stands upon a Barre, Vermont, granite pedestal, 7 ft. square at the base, 
and 9 ft. tall,»but has a 1 ft. subbase, 8 ft. square and 1 ft. thick makin- 
a total height of 10 ft. There are four stones in the pedestal, and alC 
except the lower sub-base, have finely hammered surfaces. The die 
stone has what is called a "Scotia" die, which permits of a very beautiful 
outline, and together with the Statue, presents perfect proportions for 
work of this character. 

On the front face of the die stone is elegantly carved a wreath and 
palm branch, symbolic of xMemory and Victory, and around the top of 
the die stone may be seen two members, one a plain half round molding 
umtmg with a series of beads which form a very beautiful and effective 

On the rear face of this die stone may be seen a large bronze tablet, with 
raised letters, showing the following inscription: 









GAINES MILLS, VA., JUNE 27th, 1862 



SECOND BULL RUN, VA., AUGUST 2Sth, 29th and 30th ISfi'' 


ANTIETAM, MD., SEPT. 16th and 17th.' 1SG2 

FREDERICKSBURG, VA., DEC. 13th, 1862. 

WILDERNESS, VA., MAY 5th to 17th. 1864 

SPOTSYLVANIA, VA., MAY 5th to 17th, 1864 



















Eighth Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry, Mansfield Avenue, Antietam 


Pennsylvania at Antietam. 87 


Autlioriziug the Antietam Battlefield Cominissionei*s to use an unexpended 
balance of four hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty-three cents, 
or so much thereof as may be necessary, for the purchase of ground in 
the rear of the monuments erected by the said Commissioners on Sep- 
tember 17, 190G, under an act (354) of the Legislature, approved the 
11th day of May, 1905. 

Whereas, The sum of twelve hundred dollars having been appropriated 
by the Legislature to the Antietam Battlefield Commissioners for the ex- 
penses of tlie Commission, and the said Commissioners have on hand an 
unexpended balance of four hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty-three 
cents, request, that authority be given the said Commissioners, Alexander 
F. Nicholas of Philadelphia and John A. Wiley of Franklin, to use the 
said balance of four hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty-three cents 
for the purpose of purchasing additional land in the rear of said monu- 
ments, in order to improve the location of said monuments and prevent 
any encroachment on said land. 

Section 1st. Be it enacted, etc., That the Antietam Battlefield Com- 
mission, appointed under an act (3.54) of the Legislature approved the 
11th day of May, 1905, be authorized to use an unexpended balance of 
four hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty-three cents, now in their 
hands, for the purpose of purchasing additional land in the rear of the 
monuments erected by said Commissioners on the 17th day of Sep- 
tember, 190G, to the 3rd, 4th, 7th and 8th Regiments of Pennsylvania 
Reserves, said laud being necessary to improve the appearance of the 
monuments and prevent encroachment, approved the 7th day of May, 


88 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


Philadelphia, October 1, 1906. 

Dear Sir: We have the honor to send, enclosed herewith, a 
copy of the resolutions adopted by the veterans of the Third, 
Fourth, Seventh and Eighth Regiments of the Pennsylvania 
Reserve Volunteer Corps, held on September 18, 190G. 

Yours respectfully, 


A meeting of the Veterans of the Third, Fourth, Seventh 
and Eighth Regiments, Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteeer 
Corps, was held on the train of the I'altimore and Ohio Rail- 
road between Washington and Philadelphia, on September 
18, 1906; on the occasion of the return of the veterans from 
the Battlefield of Antietam, where, as guests of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, they had assisted to dedicate the 
monuments erected by the State in honor of the regiments 
named. General B. F. Fisher, of Valley Forge, Pa., formerly 
captain of Co. H, Urd Regiment, and during the Civil War, 
Chief Signal Officer, U. S. A. was called to the chair and 
delivered an address suggesting that Resolutions appropriate 
to the ocacsion should be offered and acted upon. 

On motion duly seconded Comrades Henry B. Weed and 
Joseph D. Schlicter were appointed a committee to draft suit- 
able resolutions in juirsuance of the suggestion of the chair. 

The committee subsequently submitted the following resolu- 
tions and juoved their adoption. The motion was unanim- 
ously agreed to. The meeting then adjourned. 


Resolved that the A^eterans of the 3cl, 4th, 7th and 8th Regiments of the 
Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps hereby return their sincere thanks: 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 89 

First: To the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for her never failing 
remembrance of her sons who fought for the Union during the Civil War, 
and particularly for the costly, appropriate and beautiful monuments 
erected by her on the Battlefield of Antietam in honor of these regiments. 
Also to the Legislature and Executive of the Commonwealth for provid- 
ing the means to erect the monuments and to extend the hospitality of 
the State to the Veterans in attendance. 

Second. To His Excellency Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor of Penn- 
sylvania and his staff, and to Adjutant General Thomas J. Stewart and 
other officers, who honored the occasion by their presence, and to all 
friends who, on that day, took part in the ceremonies. 

Third: To the United States Government and to the representative of 
the War Department, Hon. John C. Scofield. 

Fourth: To Hon. Robert M. Henderson, deceased. Brigadier General 
John A. Wiley and Col. Alexander F. Nicholas, Commissioners appointed 
by the State to take charge of the selection, construction, erection and dedi- 
cation of the monuments, and who also had charge of the transportation 
and subsistence of the Veterans present at the dedication ceremonies. 

Fifth: To William Clark and Henderson Synnamon, of Philadelphia, and 
John Dauth, of Reading, Pa., representing the Third Regiment; 

John N. Reber, Frederick Markoe and William Shew, all of Philadel- 
phia, representing the Fourth Reriment; 

J. Nelson Clark and John Robinson, of Harrisburg, Pa., and John L. 
Poller, of Carlisle, Pa., representing the Seventh Regiment; 

John A. Diebold and Daniel McWilliams of Allegheny, Pa., and John 
Steel, of Pittsburgh, Pa., representing the Eighth Regiment. 

Committees appointed by the respective regiments to act in conjunction 
with the State Commission in regard to the monuments. 

Resolved fufther: That the monuments and all the proceedings in con- 
nection with their selection and erection, and the ceremonies on the 
occasion of their dedication on September 17, 190G, were and are worthy 
of the great State of Pennsylvania and characteristic of the patriotism, 
Louor and dignity of the people of the Commonwealth. 


PiTiladelphia, October 1, 1900. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, October 19, 1905. 

Dear Sir: Yours of 18th received. It will give me great pleasure to 
meet your Commission at Keedysville on the evening of the 23rd October. 

Very truly yours. 


Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Secretary, Antietam Battlefield Commission, 
Cust(mi House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

90 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

Washington, D. C. 
War Department, Room 524, 

October 25, 1905. 

My dear Sir: We send by this mail an atlas of Antietam. If you will 
refer to plate I, you will see the position of the 3rd, 4th, 7th and 8th Penn- 
sylvania Reserves during the night of September 16, 1862, and from which 
point they advanced early on the morning of the 17th. On Plate 4 you 
will find the fighting positions of the regiments. I will locate the posi- 
tion of each regiment along Mansfield avenue and drive stakes the next 
time I go to Sharpsburg. Call upon me for any assistance I can render 
your Commission. 

Very truly yours, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Secretary, Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

The Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia, Pa., June 15, 190G. 

The Honorable, The Secretary of War, 
Washington, D. C: 

Sir: I enclose for your approval inscriptioi's for bronze tablets to be 
placed on monuments of the Third, Fourth and Seventh Regiments of 
Pennsylvania Reserves; the same to be erected on the Battlefield of Antie- 
tam, on September 17, 1900. 

I will thank you to return them at your earliest convenience. 
Very respectfully, 


Secretary of Commission, 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, June 16, 1906. 

Dear Sir: We have this day received from the Secretary of War proposed 
inscriptions on the bronze tablets for the 3rd, 4th and 7th Reserves. The 
changes we have marked are very slight. You will notice that we 
have struck out the word "Antietam" in the line "Casualties at Antietam," 
but if you wish it to stand as you have Avritten it, there will be no objec- 
tion. You will also notice that we have filled in the direction and dis- 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 91 

tance of your advance on the morning of the lltli, and with whom the 
regiment became engaged. 

Very truly yours, 


Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, June 16, 1906. 

Sir: We return with some corrections and additions, proposed inscrip- 
tions for bronze tablets for the monuments of the 3rd, 4th and 7th Penn- 
sylvania Reserve regiments, to be erected upon the battlefield of Antie- 
tam. With these corrections, we believe the proposed inscriptions to be 
correct, and recommend their approval. 

Very truly yours, 


The Honorable, The Secretary of War. 

The Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia, Pa., June 18, 1906. 

The Honorable, The Secretary of War, 
Washington, D. C: 

Sir: I enclose for your approval the inscriptions for tablets of monuments 
for the 8th Regiment Pennsylvania Reserves. 

I will thank you to return the same at your earliest convenience if the 
same meets with your approval. 

Very respectfully, 


Secretary of Commission. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, June 19, 1906. 

Dear Sir: The proposed inscriptions for the 3rd, 4th and 7th Pennsyl- 
vania Reserve Regiments have been returned to us "Approved." As 
stated in ours of the 16th, you may replace "At Antietam" where we 
have crossed it out, if you so desire, and on second thought, as the 
casualties are to be on a separate tablet, we think it may be better to 

92 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

have it read "Casualties at Antietam." When you get the inscription for 
the 8th Reserve send it to us direct. 

Very truly yours, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, June 21, 1900. 

Sir: We return the proposed inscription for the 8th Pennsylvania Reserve 
Volunteer Infantry, with some corrections and transpositions, and re- 
commend its approval as corrected. 

Very respectfully, 

The Honorable, The Secretary of War, 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, June 23, 1906. 

My dear Mr. Nicholas: I have today made some corrections in your 
proposed inscriptions for the 8th Pennsylvania Reserves. It is the rule 
of the Department not to approve any inscriptions not distinctly relating 
to the field of action upon which the monument is erected, but we have 
departed from that rule in the case of the Pennsylvania regiments. To 
give us an opportunity to go over the inscriptions for all the monu- 
ments, and to prevent any possible errors, we would like you 
to retui'n all these to us after you have made copies of them. We shall 
need them only a day and can then return them to you. 

Very truly yours. 


Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Secretary, Antietam Battlefield Commission, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department. 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, June 29, 190G. 

My dear Sir; We have received from the Van Amringe Granite Company 
the designs for the four monuments at Antietam, and they havo been 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 93 

approved by the Secretary of War. Peruiissioa has also been granted to 
have the niouunieuts erected upon Manfield avenue, where your Commis- 
sion agreed to locate them, and next week we shall drive the stakes and 
have the foundations made for Mr. Van Amringe. Can you not send us 
fair copies of the various inscriptions next week that we may examine 
them before they go to the Van Amringe Company. 

Very truly yours, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, December 30, 1905. 

Dear Sir: In response to yours of the 29th instant, regarding the 
standing of the Van Amringe Company of Boston, and of Eisenbaum & 
Son, of Reading, I would say that I have no knowledge of Eisenbaum & 
Son, and of the character of their work. Of the Van Amringe Company 
we would say that we have known the firm for many years and can speak 
with confidence of the high character of their work, both as to its artistic 
merit and stability. The firm has put up many fine monuments upon 
the fields of Chickamagua and Chattanooga, and its work has been well 
done. At Antietam it has put many monuments for the character of 
which we have but to call your attention to the thirteen monuments put 
up for the State of Pennsylvania two years since. They have doue much 
work at Gettysburg, the character of which you can learn from Col. 
John P. Nicholson, Chairman of the Gettysburg Commission. We consider 
them in every way reliable, and you can make no mistake in making a 
contract with them. 

Very truly yours, 


Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Secretary, Antietam Battlefield Commission, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

W^ar Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, July 2, 1906. 

My dear Sir: Yours of June 30th received with inclosed text for tablets, 
M-hich we herewith return with some corrections. You will observe that 
on the inscriptions for the 4th Reserve you corrected South Mountain and 
Antietam, which should follow Chantilly. If there is any assistance I 

94 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

can rendt-r will be pleased to do so. Is it your intentiou to visit Antie- 
tam iu the near future V 

^'ery respectfully, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, July 9, 1906. 

Dear Sir: Yours of the 6th received. 1 would suggest that when you 
dedicate your monuments you first have regimental ceremonies at each of 
the four monuments, in the morning, and then a general ceremony in 
the early afternoon at the cemetery. This was the plan adopted by 
the commission of which Colonel Hawley was chairman, and the arrange- 
ment was very successful. If you adopt this plan there will be no trouble 
in getting use of the National Cemetery, and I will attend to this for you. 
I will also attend to the matter of having a proper officer of the Govern- 
ment to receive the monument from the Governor. 

I was at Antietam on Saturday last and made arrangements to have 
the foundations of the monuments put down. I only received the dimen- 
sions from Van Amringe on Friday last. I shall go to Chattanooga to- 
morrow evening and remain until the end of the month. Should you 
desire to communicate with me, address me at The Read House, Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee. 

Very truly yours, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 
■Secretary, The Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, July 31, 1906. 

My dear Sir: In further reply to yours of the 6th instant, we advise 
you that the Quartermaster General has consented to the use of the 
rostrum and National Cemetery at Antietam for the dedication services, 
September 17th, and the Superintendent of the Cemetery so advised; and 
that the Assistant Secretary of War has designated the writer of this to 
teceive the monument from the Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Very respectfully, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 
ISecretary, The Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 95 

War Department, 
Cliickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, August 30, 1906. 

Dear Sir: It is by no means certain that I can be at the Antietam 
September 17, next, to receive the four monuments you are to dedicate 
on that day, as I may have to go to Chattanooga before that date. 

Under the circumstances I would suggest that you write General Robert 
Shaw Oliver, Assistant Secretary of War, to detail another person for 
the service. Enclose it to me and I will see that a proper person satis- 
factory to Groveruor Pennypacker and your Committee will be selected. 

Very truly yours, 

Chairman of Commission. 
Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Washington, September 4, 1906. 

Sir: Replying to your letter of 31st ultimo requesting the Department 
to designate a representative to accept from the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania the monuments erected on the battlefield of Antietam to the 3rd, 
4th, 7th and 8th regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserves, in view of 
the probable* inability of General E. A. Carman, who had already been 
designated for that duty, to attend on September 17th, I beg to advise 
you that I have this day selected Mr. John C. Scofield, Chief Clerk of 
the War Department to represent the Government at the ceremonies in 
question and to accept the monuments. 

Very truly yours, 


Acting Secretary of War. 
Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 
Secretary, The Antietam Battlefield Commission of Pennsylvania, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, September 5, 1906. 

Dear Sir: We have received a telegram from C. W. Adams, Sharps- 
burg, dated 3rd instant, saying that your Commission insisted that the 
monuments should be put from left to right as follows. 8th P. R., 7th 
P. R., 4th P. R., 3rd P. R. We assume from this that this is the 
order in which the Commission decides the regiments lay at the time 
of the advance on the morning of the 17th. 

96 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

The official reports are silent as to the position of the regiments in line 
and when making our studies of the field we were compelled to rely 
upon information furnished by survivors, to whom many letters were 
sent, which were courteously answered. We also met many survivors 
of the field. Our positions of the regiments were located from the in- 
formation thus received. The great bulk of our papers is not now readily 
accessible, but we have put our hand on some sketches and notes which 
we quote: 

Samuel V. Kuby (now dead) Ttli P. K., on April 28, 1895, made a 
sketch siiowJng that in advancing into the West woods on the evening 
of September IGth, the regiment was deployed on the right of a line 
of three regiments, thus: 

' 4- 4- 4- 

He marks its position that night as some distance, say 180 yards west 
of the angle in the PofEenberger lane running south. He marks its posi- 
tion in line along the north fence of Miller's cornfield on the morning 
of the 17th, with the 4th P. R. on its left. Its right near the fence 
corner of the present D. R. Miller's apple orchard. Ruby says when it 
fell back it Avas to the right and most of the men went up the Hagers- 
town pike. 

G. L. Baldwin, 7th P. R., January 20, 1895, sends a sketch showing 
that on the night of the 16th the regiment entered the north woods 
about where the woods were 60 yards deep, and that on the morning of 
the 17th it moved to the right, and then in mass, with its right close 
to the fence of D. R. Miller's orchard, and was, while engaged, on the 
right a sliort distance east of the S. E. corner of the present D. R. 
Miller's orchard. Before moving to the left along the cornfield fence 
Baldwin say* the right of the 7th P. R. was on the Hagerstown pike 
opposite the Miller barn. When it fell back it was to the right toward 
the pike. 

The following notes have no name attached, but all of the 7th P. R.: 

"We (the 7tli) moved into the woods and lay that night on the left 
of the 12th P. R. The 4th was on our left. Next morning we marched 
west and then south to the cornfield. Then we moved along the fence 
to the left, and the regiments of our brigade on the left being driven back, 
we fell back to a gully near the road. (Hagerstown pike.) 

"About dark we went over a lawn and lay down in the woods on the 
right of the 4th regiment. I was on picket that night on the south 
edge of the woods about 100 yards in front of my regiment." 

"I am not sure what regiment was on our left, but know that Ander- 
son's brigade was on the immediate right. When engaged we were near 
the road that runs past the spring (Miller's) and the 4th P. R. and 
rest of the brigade was on the left." 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 97 

"I do not remeuiber what regiment was on the right or left ou the 
uight of the IGth, but we were in the woods. Next moruiug we marched 
forward through the woods about 100 yards and over an open field to 
near a house (Miller) where we halted in a gully (in the present apple 
orchard) with the 4th ou our left. We soon double quicked to the left 
and the rebels busted our brigade in the center, and we fell back to 
the gully." 

"When we moved out of the woods (ou the ITtli) we were on the right 
of the brigade, and we deployed with our right just beyond the big 
spring on the road." 

It is barely possible, though not probable, that all these informants 
are mistaken, but the information they give fully justifies us in our 
conclusion that the 7th P. R. was oS the right of the brigade line. 

We give some testimony from the Confederate side as to the position 
north of the cornfield fence. Col. J. M. Stone, 11th Mississippi, after- 
ward Governor of "Mississippi, writes January IS, 1895: "As we ad- 
vanced through the corn a Federal brigade was seen moving by the left 
fiank to the left. We reached the fence and opened fire upon it, and 
it broke. A few of the men in advance (8th P. R.) took shelter in the 
woods and returned our fire. Without orders a few of my men crossed 
the fence and engaged a part of the Federal brigade that still held ou 
ou our left, and drove them back toward the road and orchard." 

This Avas evidently the 7th P. R., and G. L. Baldwin of Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., can tell you all about this fight. 

A private soldier of the 11th Mississippi (.J. P. Lipscomb) writes Jan- 
uary 29, 189.5: 

"When we jumped the fence and followed the Yankees (left and center 
of Magilton) we became engaged with a body of them on our left flank 
and fell back into the corn." 

There is no question as to the position of the 8th P. R. 
We cannot lay our hands on our notes of Srd P. R. and 4th P. R. 
but some of the preceding quotations show the 4th to have been on 
the left of the 7th. We have two notes to the contrary. Major E. L. 
Christian, 4th P. R., writes us December 20, 1894, that on the night 
of the IGth his regiment laid down on the extreme east point of the 
noi'th woods." 

On December 20, 1894, General John A. Wiley wrote us that General 
S. M. Bailey says the 4th P. R. in advancing was on the right of 
the 8th P. R. However, we did not adopt the view of Christian and 
Bailey, though they may be right, as the weight of evidence was clearly 
and decidedly to the effect that the 3rd P. R. was on the left of the 

We have herein given you in part, the facts uiwn which we base 
our conclusions that the brigade stood in this order: 

8th P. R., 3rd P. R., 4th P. R., 7th P. R. 

If in the views of your Commission you think we have been misinformed, 

or have not correctly interpreted our information, we are content to let 

things go as you desire them. It is unfortunate that this matter was 

not discussed earlier. My atlas has been published two years, and a 


98 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

copy seut to each regimental orgauizatiou with tlie request tliat any 
apparent errors miglit be reported, but not a criticism lias been made of. 
any position ot the First Corps, and but one or two trifling ones in other 

We would suggest that when you dedicate the monuments the sur- 
vivors of each regiment assemble and give their recollections as to the 
place of their bivouack on the night of September 16, 1862. 

Very truly yours, 


Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Secretary, Antietam Battlefield Commission, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Cbickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, September 10, 1906. 

My dear Nicholas: I think very much as you do that, considering the 
positions are those of bivouac, and not fighting positions, it does not 
matter very materially. All are on the ground very near the bivouac, 
if not exactly on it. I had great difficulty in getting information as to 
these positions, and all I did get was very conflicting. 

I was at Sharpsburg Saturday and Sunday, coming down this morn- 
ing. The stone is all there, and the men began putting them up this 
morning. Mi". Van Amringe is there, and if nothing happens all will be 
lip by Saturday. 

I am glad to say that I hope to be with you. I find that I need not 
go South until a few days later. I shall go up with Mr. Scofield. 
Very truly yours, 

Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

War Department, 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission, 

Washington, October 25, 1906. 

Dear Sir: Yours of the 23rd received. We had a letter from General 
Wiley regarding the placing of the Fifth corps badge on the monuments, 
and without giving it much thought, and being at Chattanooga, away 
from my papers, informed him that there would be no objection to any 
action your Commission should take. Yon ought to have the First corps 
badge on the monument because at the time of the battle you were 
in that corps, but we shall not object to having the Fifth corps badge 
placed within the disc of the Fifth corps badge. In a word, if but one 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 99 

badge is used it must be the First corps, but no objection will be made 
to the Fifth corps badge inside the disc of the First corps. It would be 
verj' strange if you succeeded in pleasing everybody. 

Very truly yours, 

Chairman of Commission. 
Alexander F. Nicholas, Esq., 

Secretary, Antietam Battlefield Commission, 
Custom House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

100 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 


TUE (ledicatiou of the monument erected on the Antietam 
Battlefield by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was 
held on the morning- of the 17th Septembei', 1906, and 
was attended by some forty survivors of the old command, re 
presenting eight of the ten companies. 


for the 


of the 



Ou SeptcQiber 17th, 1906. 


1. Prayer, Rev. A. A. Kerlm, of Memorial Church, Sharpsburg, Md. 

2. Remarks, Chairman W. S. Haas, of Co. G., President of the Asso- 

3. Unveiling of Monument, Miss Bertie A. Lingle, of Reading, Pa., 
daughter of one of the comrades. 

4. Song, "America." 

5. Address, Capt. Joseph Matchett, of the 4Gth Penna. 
G. Address, Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker. 

7. Address, Col. O. C. Bosbyshell, Secretary 1904 Commission. 

8. Address, Dallas Dillinger, of Co. D. 

9. Address, Lieut. Thomas McCalmant, Co. G., 125th Penna. 

10. Oration, Dr. Mahlon H. Beary, of Co. D. 

11. Address, Capt. E. L. Witman, one of General Crawford's aids, 
but detached for General Mansfield on the day of the battle. 

12. Doxology and Benediction. 

Note. — The dedication will take place at 10 A. M., at the monument 
on Cornfield avenue, and the reunion at the Antietam Hotel, in Sharps- 
burg, at 2 P. M. • 

Headquarters at Antietam Hotel, where all necessary information will 
be given. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 101 

In accordance with this program the survivors gathered 
around the monument at ten o'clock in the morning and on 
being called to order by the President of the Association, W, 
T. Haas, the Rev. A. A. Kerlin, Pastor in charge of the Luth- 
eran Memorial Church, in Sharpsburg, offered the following 
prayer : 


In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost! 
Amen! We thank Thee, our Father, for all Thy goodness to us as a nation, 
as families, as churches, and as Individuals. Thou hast prospered us 
above all nations. 

We thank Thee for America, the land of the free, for her mountains 
of timber, her hills underlaid with untold wealth, her valleys yielding so 
abundantly all that is needed for man and beast and to spare. 

We thank Thee for our civil and religious institutions and for the 
hopeful promise that while the earth remains seed time and harvest, 
summer and winter, day and night shall not fail. 

We thank Thee for Jesus Christ, our Saviour, for the Bible to guide 
us aright, and that Thou hast established Thy Church among us, from 
which the light of the Gospel shines unto us, to our children, and to 
them that are afar off. 

We thank Thee for the domestic circle, the home, so sacred to many, 
for the Sabbath, the day of rest, and that our President is a man 
after Thine own heart, who loves the Church and is identified with her 
best interests. 

We thank Thee for those who laid the foundation of this government 
and sealed it with sacrifice and blood, and who secured for us our civil 
and religious liberty. 

We bless Thee for the veterans who are with us today, who sacrificed 
much during the Civil War, and for their dead comrades who gave their 
lives to perpetuate civil and religious freedom. We acknowledge our in- 
debtedness to them for the peace and prosperity we enjoy. 

We thank Tiiee that many of them are heads of Christian families, a 
bright example unto others, and many of them among our best and 
most upright church members and business men. 

,We ask Thee to help us, who are near the end of life's journey, to 
be exam.ples of uprightness to the young and may they remember their 
Creator in the days of their youth. 

Help all to remember that behind all our achievements is the Lord 
God himself. 

Bless all who are here, especially the veterans and their families, as 
well as the families of their dead comrades, who sleep in their graves, 
who died in the cause of freedom. Provide for them and keep them 
in Thy peace and love. 

May this monument, to the end of time, be a living epistle to all 
even to many yet unborn, a sermon to tell what it cost to perpetuate 

102 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

liberty, aud may it admonish all to defend and preserve what was se- 
cured at so great a sacrifice. May it remind all of duty to God in 
Christ, of duty to church, home, country and to our neighbor. Bless 
every home, aud, when our lives here shall end, may we have so lived 
as to hear the "well done" from the Master's throne. Amen. 

MR. W. T. HAAS, President of the Association, and Chair- 
man made the following address: 


My dear Comrades and Friends: I am glad and grateful to a kind 
Heavenly Father lor giving me another opportunity to visit this historic 
field, and to meet so many of my old comrades. By an act passed by our 
Legislature in April, 1903, Governor Pennypacker was authorized to 
sppoint three commissioners whose duty it was to erect thirteen monu- 
ments in memory of thirteen Pennsylvania commands engaged in this 
battle. The Commissioners Avere Col. J. W. Hawley, General W. J. Bol- 
ton, and Col. O. C. Bosbyshell. The appropriation allowed an expendi- 
ture of $2,500 for each monument. 

These monuments were turned over to the State represented by Gov- 
ernor Pennypacker, who presented them to the United States for their 
future care and protection, on September 17th, 1904. Some of us had 
the pleasure of being present. The exercises were exceedingly inter- 
esting. An eloquent oration was delivered by Rev. J. Richards Boyle, 
D. D., who gave a complete history of this famous battle. All the monu- 
ments were dedicated at that time by the survivors of the different regi- 
ments except our own. Unfortunately our monument was the only one 
remaining unfinished. The reason given was that on account of the in- 
tricate work on the Statue the sculptor was not able to finish it in 
time. It was completed in the spring of 1905. 

This beautiful monument now stands before us and we are here to 
express our gratitude to a generous Commonwealth, who thus honored 
the valor of its sons in this bloody struggle. 

Forty-four years have passed and yet how vividly come before us 
the scenes of that dreadful morning when v>q formed in the fields of Line's 
fatm, and Avere led through the East Avoods, and right and left of it, 
to face the galling fire of those Texans and Georgians of Hills' division. 
Will Ave ever forget that morning hour Avhen 118 of our comrades were 
bleeding and dying on and this side of the knoll over yonder. Yet 
this was just nbout a hundredth part of the enormous sacrifice of that 
day. Notwithstanding cur severe loss, our regiment acquitted itself admir- 
ably, and left the field sharing in the honor of a victory, which proved 
to be the turning point of a serious crisis in the history of the War. 

The flag covering the monument was then gracefully re- 
moved by Miss Bertie A. Lingle, of Reading, Pa,, a daughter 
of one of the survivors of the Regiment, and the entire as-~ 
sembly united in singing "America," 

Observatory, Antietam Battlefield. 

Pennsylvania at Antietani. 103 

Captain Joseph Matcliette of the 46th Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment, then made the following address: 


Mr. Chairman and Comrades of 128tli Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry, 
12tli Army Corps: I consider it a great privilege to be with you at the 
dedication of your beautiful monument on the Autietam Battlefield, one 
of tlie most important during the war. 

And consider it a great privilege to be again on this field the first time 
in 40 years. And to mingle with a few of the boys of the 128th, along- 
side of whom we of the old 4Gth Regiment fought on that bloody day, 
September 17th, 1SG2. 

Because you were in our Brigade and became part and parcel of our- 
selves, our Regiment for a time acted as your color Company, and when 
your Colonel Crossdale was killed — your Lieut. Colonel Hamersly wounded 
— -we gave to you a commander from our Regiment, Major Mathews, who 
aftei-wards became your Colonel and gallantly led you on other battle- 

The recollections of this battle will be always with us. Crossing the 
Antietam Creek as the brigade the night of September 16th, resting in 
a plowed field away back yonder, waiting for the day to dawn, the 
last sunrise that many of our comrades would look upon. 

Then came the boom of cannon, screeching of the shells, roar of mus- 
ketry in our front, our advance into the corn field led by that gallant 
old soldier. General Mansfield, where he pierced with rebel bullet — then 
death reaping its harvest — of Blue and Gray in the advance towards the 
Dunker Church. 

In this hard long day's struggle in the woods and open fields, when 
your colonel was killed, your lieutenant colonel wounded, and your and 
our comrades slain and wounded by our side, until night came and spread 
its mantle over the dead and dying of friend and foe alike. 

But the battle was won, and our enemy was glad to get away and 
retreat crestfallen across the Potomac. 

We of the old 4Gth Regiment are pleased to see that our Keystone 
State has given you a monument on this field. But we hope that at 
som,e time in the near future the brigade lines will be marked with 
monuments to the other Pennsylvania Regiments that struggled here. 

Our regiment at this battle had but a few over 100 men all told, of 
which we lost over 10 per cent, that day. And no doubt in due time 
our State Legislature will give us also a monument on this field to 
complete the work so generously commenced. 

Thanking you, Mr. Chairman, for this privilege of addressing the 
boys of our old brigade of the Star Corps. 

And wishing you nil long life, I bid you all farewell. 

Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor of the Common- 
wealth, with his military staff, honored the occasion by his 
presence and was introduced to the audience by Chairman 

104 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

Haas. The Governor responded by complimenting the sur- 
vivors of the 128th on the beauty of their monument. The 
idea of perpetuating the deeds of the Pennsylvauians who 
fought in this great battle by the erection of enduring monu- 
ments of granite, appealed to his sense of justice and patriot- 
ism. ''How glorious is this land of ours where we are great 
enough to erect monuments to the men in the ranks, whilst 
in Europe naught but kings and nobles are thus honored." 

Antietam Battlefield Commission under whose supervision the 
monument was erected, was then introduced and made the 
following remarks: 


Mr. President, Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen: In accepting the 
appointment from tlie Governor of Pennsylvania as a Commission to 
erect thirteen monuments on this field in honor of the deeds here per- 
formed by thirteen regiments from the old Commonwealth that were not 
honored on the field of Gettysburg, the members of the Commission found 
that the liberal appropriation made by the State of $2,500, for each 
organization would permit the erection of Statue Monuments. It was 
then determined to make the series historical. This could be done by 
representing different poses ot the volunteer soldier of 1S61-5, in the 
statues to be made, with uniforms, accoutrements, etc., of the time. 

The result is before you. 

These thirteen monuments consist of three portrait statues, and ten 
statues typical of the soldier of '61. The 45th represents a private 
soldier "Tearing Cartridge," a reminder that the day of metal cartridges 
and breecli loading muskets had not yet arrived. The 48th shows a 
bronze portrait statue of Brigadier General James Nagle, its organizer 
and first commander, who received his commission of Brigadier Genearl on 
the battlefield of Antietam. The 50th a bronze portrait statue of Brigadier 
General Benjamin, C. Christ, its organizer and first commander. The 
51st the "Skirmisher," with uniform and accoutrements such as worn in 
the fight. The 100th, the glorious old "Roundheads," a fine bronze figure 
of a noble youth, represented in the subject chosen of "Challenge," in 
the act of halting an approaching person with a "who goes there" — prob- 
ably the grandest figure of an American soldier yet modelled. The 124th 
exhibits a bronze "Infantry Man" fully equipped with overcoat and knap- 
sack, all faithful reproductions of those in use at the time of the 
battle. The 125th, a portrait statue in granite of color bearer George 
A. Simpson, accoutred as he was when he lost his life gallantly carrying 
the old flag near the Dunker Church. The 130th, a beautifully modelled 
figure of a soldier in the position of "Rest." The 132nd, the "Color 
Bearer," with his flag proudly raised aloft in defiance after having the 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 105 

end of the staff shot away — an actual occurrence in the regiment at 
tlie battle of Fredericksburg. The 137th, which stands beside your own 
most beautiful monument, exhibits the soldier in the act of "Handle 
Cartridge," whilst away on yonder knoll where your good colonel lost 
his life, stands the fine figure of a "Cavalryman" to honor the 12th Cavalry 
Regiment. Durell's Battery shows an artillery man "Watching Effect 
of Shot," whilst your own grand monument, so fittingly dedicated this 
day, has a figure of a soldier "On the firing line," cut from a solid 
block of granite, with the musket free from support, perhaps the most 
remarkable example of granite relief carving ever attempted. 

You do not know the difficulty of accomplishing this work, and it was 
this difficulty that prevented its dedication on the 17th of September, 
1904. Charles A. Pinardi, the skillful granite cutter, labored faithfully 
at the quarries in cutting this statue, and with a care worthy of com- 
mendation, accompanied the same to the spot, where after it was placed 
on this beautiful and appropriate pedestal, rigged a scaffolding about 
the same and then finished the most diflBcult details of the work, occupy- 
ing a month's time. Note the musket cut entirely clear of support from 
the body, an accomplishment not matched in any granite statue in the 
laud. You have a unique monument, most graceful in proportions, show- 
ing a young alert soldier, full of action doing his full duty "On the 
Firing Line." 

I congratulate you on the successful completion of this, your memorial, 
feeling assured that the 128th organization, the Battlefield Commissioners, 
and the great Commonw^ealth of Pennsylvania have no reason to fear ad- 
verse criticism from any whose gaze falls upon this magnificent work 
of art, put here to perpetuate and emphasize the glorious deeds of the 
128th Pennsylvania Regiment on this great battlefield of the War of 
the Rebellion. 

MR. DALLAS DILLINGER, Private, Company D, 128th 
Regiment, was introduced and said: 

Comrades and Friends: I hardly know what I can say or add to the 
addresses just made; but I think most of you do not know how the 
spots for the location of these beautiful monuments were determined. 
In the year of 1894, Governor Robert E. Pattison appointed a commis- 
sion composed of members of the different regiments of Pennsylvania who 
participated in the battle of September 17th, 18G2, namely, our deceased 
comrade, Henry Shenton, the colonel of the Gth Pennsylvania National 
Guard, and myself of the 12Sth Regiment, and such comrades as General 
Coulter, Captain Tompkins, Adjutant General Greenland and my friend 
Lieutenant McCamant, who made such an eloquent address at the un- 
veiling of the 12.5th Regiment's monument, September 17th, 1904, and 
many others. We met upon the battlefield here in the same year, and 
with the assistance of General Carman, who had charge of the surveying 
of the lines, and Col. Stearns, and General Heth of the Antietam Board 

106 Pennsylvania at Antiefam. 

of the United States, we have located upon the spot; as you see upon 
the monument, 315 feet north of the place our beautiful monument is now 
erected as the advance position of our regiment in the great cornfield. 
That day you and I will never forget. 

Regiment, was introduced and made some happy references to 
the work performed by the 128th Regiment, after which Dr. 
INIahlon H. Berry, of Company D, 128th Regiment, delivered 
the following oration: 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, Comrades: After the eloquent, 
able and patriotic address of our worthy president of the 128th Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment Association, and the grand and appropriate address of 
our worthy Governor of Pennsylvania, who, with his staff, arrived in 
due time to assist in the dedication of our monument, namely, the 12Sth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. We are grateful for all these tributes, and 
God-sent propitious weather of this day, to continue our services of dedica- 

In the course of human events great nations were instituted, so also did 
great nations fall. Our nation was threatened to perish in one of the 
greatest conflicts known to man, but j'ou, my fellow comrades, came to 
its rescue, and on this sacred soil of "My Maryland" you demonstrated 
the fact that our Southern brethern must leave. They did leave, but 
being offspring of the same parental stock as we are, they only left to 
meet us again from time to time, until finally at Appomattox the great 
leaders of both sides came together, and conditions were agreed upon, 
which have been held sacred by the great warriors of that day to this. 
On the side of the South was our Lee, North, our Grant, South, our Long- 
street, North, our McClellan, and South, our Jackson, and so on interchange- 
ably. Our Sheridan, our Early, our Sherman, our Beauregard, our Rose- 
crans, our Johnson, our Meade, our Pemberton, our Burnside, our Kirby 
Smith, our Banks, our Bragg, our Hooker, our Hill, our Freemont, our 
Ilood, and our Butler, our Ewell, our Schofield and Mansfield, our own 
Corps Commander, who was left on the bloody field of carnage, and 
hosts of other brave generals and brave soldiers of the north and of the 
south, all stubbornly contending for what they thought was right. I 
term Lee our Lee. 1 term Grant our Grant to the veteran of Lee. Grant 
is their Grant as to the veteran of Grant, Lee is their Lee, for at San- 
Juan Hill, under the starry emblem of our nation, the sons of the boys 
in blue, and the sons of the boys in gray, with their life blood cemented 
together in this struggle, the last link in the chain of dissension. The 
Christian mothers of the oQicers and soldiers of the south, rendered the 
same prayers for them and their intended purpose, as our mothers did in 
the north, and all worshipped the same God, the Great Judge. Have we 
today abandoned that great strife in our minds both north and south, 

Pennsylvania at Antietam. 107 

and do Ave look upon a certain lesson, taught in the greatest book of 
all books. Christ's great lesson to the world upon the cross. Remember 
the teaching of the positive fact of his crucifiction, historical, not tradi- 
tional, and one of the malefactors which were hanged, railed on him, 
saying: "If thou be Christ, save thyself and us," but the other answer- 
ing, rebuked him saying: "Dost not thou fear God; seeing thou art in 
the same condemnation? and we indeed justly, for we receive the due 
reward of our deeds, but this man hath done nothing amiss." And he 
said unto .Jesus, "Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy king- 
dom," and Jnses said unto him, "Verily, I say unto thee, today thou 
Shalt be with me in Paradise." And further asked to forgive his per- 
secutors, "for they know not what they do." Do we both north and 
south teach and practice this doctrine. I beseech you all as Christians 
never to forget the Cross. We both North and South may have erred 
^nd yet there are some people after the close of the war for over forty 
years who tried to revive a bad spirit between us, but it is too late. I 
tell you, of both sides, that war is ended forever. We, both North and 
South, spring from the same patriotic ancestry, and we know the lesson 
that was taught to humanity, from the days of our revolutionary war 
to the present day. We know from history and the contest with our 
mother country during the dark days of the revolution for the establish- 
ment of our nation, that it was long and bloody conflict from Lexington 
to Yorktown, where ended the revolution. Though we had a number of 
Avars up to the days of sixty-one and sixty-five, we commenced at Port 
Sumter, in 'Gl, and ended at Appomattox in '6.5. At Appomattox Avas 
taught a lesson to the nations of the earth. Brother surrendered to 
brother, and then the brother accepting the terms of surrender said to 
the brother of the North, "here is my SAA'ord." Noav says the brother con- 
queror, "that is yours. Sheath it; take it home with you." Our Southern 
brother then said, "in yon field are our horses and our mules." "Never 
mind," said the brother of the North, "you take them home with you, 
you will need them to till your soil. Orderly, you go and order rations 
to feed these our starving brethern." In what warfare of the world 
AA'as there ever such magnaminity displayed. The contest was one of 
the greatest known in the annals of the world's history. You, my fellow 
comrades, and fellow citizens, now stand on the ground where one of 
the hardest contested battles of the Civil War took place, and yon, my 
fellow comrades have been a part of the instrumentality who assisted by 
your action here, and in other battles, to perpetuate the legacy left to 
us by our ancestry. The nation is still a nation, however, I caution 
you to bcAvare lest you fall. Napoleon once said he would be ruler 
upon earth, and God in Heaven. That nation of France once a Kingdom 
is now a Republic. Thus you see how uncertain any form of government 
may be, and we will not attempt to leap over the chasm before we get 
there. We are assembled here today for the purpose of dedicating a monu- 
ment in honor of the heroes who fell on or near this sacred spot. And 
this beautiful shaft is erected and dedicated to the memory of our dear 
one's who fell here on that memorable day of September 17, 1862, forty- 

108 Pennsylvania at Antietam. 

four years ago. Erected by the State, and presented to the General 
Government on yon field, we said farewell to the comrades that fell, and 
who have gone to that undiscovered country from whose bourne no 
traveller ever returneth. Do not forget that a great lesson is taught in 
the great book to render the things unto Ceasar that are Ceasar's, and 
unto God that are God's, and do not forget, that in every Christian family 
your children are taught the "Lord's Prayer," and in it you pray, "for- 
give my trespasses as I forgive those who trespass against me." Do 
we do this as citizens, and between the North and the South. And 
furtllier than that, do we do so among ourselves, or as a people of the 
North or of the South. For myself I would like the whole family of 
America welded together, especially the Blue and the Gray into all 
futurity, and nothing but the cultivation of the kind, forgiving spirit 
of both sides, North and South, will more thoroughly accomplish this end. 
We can do this as God Almighty teaches. Read and study His book. 
ilTere some of us stood two years ago and assisted our neighbors in 
our humble way to dedicate their monument, namely, 137th Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, and grand were the ceremonies by the old boys and patriots 
of the 137th, and the thought here pervaded my mind how we do things 
in this great country of ours in a hurry and in a bustle, forgetting even 
the duty we owe to our fellow men. To love our neighbor as ourselves 
and to do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Do we do 
this? Now, in conclusion, and in the name of the grateful people, and 
in behalf of the survivors of the 128th llegiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, I assume the liberty today to dedicate this monument now completed 
to our honored heroes who fell here today forty-four years ago. And 
to you my dear comrades and all present I wish a long life, even the life 
beyoud the tomb, and may God be with you till we meet again is the 
earnest wish of a comrade and brother, and if we cannot meet here 
again, may wc all meet together, both the Blue and the Gray, in the 
happiest part of that unknown country to man. Amen. 

CAPTAIN E. L, WITMAN being present and having served 
during the battle of Antietam, as an aid on General Mans- 
field's staff, was introduced and related in an entertaining 
way some incidents connected with the battle that were great- 
ly enjoyed by the audience. 

The singing of the Doxology and pronouncing of the Bene- 
diction closed the proceedings. 


Pennsylvanid at Antietam. lUU 



A granite statue, 10 ft. high, that may well be called "On the Firing 
Line," if pose and action count for anything in cold stone and chiselled 
granite, marks with its rough quarry faced pedestal the One Hundred 
and Twenty-Eighth Infantry's position. 

The limit of expert granite cutting is shoAvn in this statue, and only an 
expert carver in granite or marble can fully appreciate the relief work 
shown in this piece. The regulation sized muzzle-loading musket, cut 
practically free from the body, the full length of the barrel without sup- 
port of any kind, save where the two hands clasp the weapon, and at 
a point near the stock that barely touches the man's body, this statue 
excites the wonder as well as the admiration o' all who look upon it. 

This model is the work of Mr. E. A. L. Pausch, and the name of 
the expert granite cutter, Charles A. Pinardi, deserves to be recorded 

This granite pedestal is built of four stones, two bases, the die stone 
and the cap stone. All surfaces except washes are quarry-faced and 
pitched to an edge, giving the whole a rustic effect that is especially in- 
teresting and pleasing. 

The Twelfth Army Corps Badge is cut in bold relief on front pediment 
of the overhanging cap, and on each of the upper corners of the cap 
is a polished granite ball, which adds significance detail to the design. 

The pedestal is six feet six inches square at the base, and nine feet high, 
making a total height of sixteen feet, six inches. 

On the front panel of the die stone is seen the Regimental bronze in- 
scription tablet, as follows: 

12STH , *' 





TOTAL lis 





( 110) 

105 80 %